THe Hog Island Case (Doodle & Woo Book 4)

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This magnet, which takes the. Sometimes this movement is directly utilized and is made to produce dots or dashes on a strip of paper which is drawn along by clockwork. The conventional signals are thus formed by a combination of those dots and dashes. This is the American telegraph, which bears the name of Morse, its inventor. Sometimes this to-and-fro movement is converted into a movement of rotation. In that way we have either the dial telegraph used on railroads or the telegraph used in the government system, which by means of two line wires and two indicating needles reproduce all the signals of the aerial telegraph or semaphore which was formerly used.

One can understand that the principle we have stated can be used to choose at a distance such and such a character, and to determine its movement, and consequently to print it on a sheet of paper appropriately placed for this purpose. This is the printing telegraph. By the employment of the same principle, and by means of a mechanism rather complicated, it has been possible to reach a result which at first would seem to be almost a miracle. Handwriting itself is produced at a distance, and not only handwriting, but any line or any curve, so that, being in Paris, you can draw a profile by ordinary means there, and the same profile draws itself at the same time at Frankfort.

Attempts of this sort have succeeded. The apparatus has been exhibited at the London Exhibition. Some details, however, remain to be perfected. It would seem impossible to go beyond this in the region of the marvelous. Let us try, nevertheless, to go a few steps further. I have asked myself, for example, if the spoken word itself could not be transmitted by electricity -- in a word, if what was spoken in Vienna may not be heard in Paris?

The thing is practicable in this way:". But the intensity of the vibrations diminishes very rapidly with the distance, so that even with the aid of speaking tubes and trumpets, it is impossible to exceed somewhat narrow limits. Suppose that a man speaks near a movable disk sufficiently flexible to lose none of the vibrations of the voice; that this disk alternately makes and breaks the connection with a battery; you may have at a distance another disk which will simultaneously execute the same vibrations.

It is, moreover, evident that the sounds will be reproduced at the same pitch. The mode in which these syllables are produced has not yet been sufficiently investigated.

Reproduce precisely these vibrations, and you will reproduce precisely these syllables. Everything tends to show, on the contrary, that there is such a possibility. When the application of electromagnetism to the transmission of messages was first discussed, a man of great scientific attainments treated the idea as Utopian, and yet there is now direct communication between London and Vienna by means of a simple wire. Men declared it to be impossible, but it is done. Anyone who is not deaf and dumb may use this mode of transmission, which would.

In many cases -- as for example in large establishments, orders might be transmitted in this way, although transmission in this way will not be used while it is necessary to transmit letter by letter and to make use of telegraphs which require use and apprenticeship. However this may be, it is certain that in a more or less distant future, speech will be transmitted by electricity. I have made some experiments in this direction. They are delicate and demand time and patience, but the approximations obtained promise a favorable result.

Of the Reis publications the record contained over sixty separate papers, from to , and also a large amount of expert testimony concerning them. It is not practicable to reproduce most of this evidence, except as it is referred to by counsel in the synopses of their arguments. The following are the translations of some of the principal publications under this head, which were referred to in argument in this Court. It appeared that Reis delivered two lectures before the "Physikalischer Vereins" of Frankfort.

The first of the following papers was written by him as a report of those lectures. Published in Experiments made in this direction could not,. To a person having only a superficial knowledge of physics, the problem presents far less difficulties simply because the most of them are unperceived.

About nine years ago, I also having an extraordinary enthusiasm for what was new, and an insufficient knowledge of physics had the boldness to attempt the solution, but was soon forced to desist because the very first experiment convinced me of the impossibility of its solution. I could never get rid of the thought of that first experiment and its occasion, notwithstanding all that reason says to the contrary, and thus, half unwillingly, this project of my youth was reviewed in hours of leisure; the difficulties and the means for overcoming them were weighed; but for the present, at least, no experiment was made.

This was always the cardinal question; finally I got the notion of putting the question in another way:". Or, more generally,". If this occurs in the same medium in which we are, the membrane of the ear is at each condensation forced toward the middle ear, to be moved at the subsequent rarefaction in the opposite direction. These vibrations produce a synchronous raising and falling of the hammer upon the anvil according to other authorities, an approach or receding of the earbone particles , and a similar number of tremors in the fluid of the cochlea, in which the filaments of the auditory nerve are distributed.

The greater the condensation of the sound-conducting medium at any given moment, the greater is the amplitude of vibration of the membrane and hammer, and consequently the more powerful the blow upon the anvil and the vibration of the nerves by means of the fluid. But the office of the auditory nerve is to bring to our consciousness the vibrations of matter which have occurred in a given time, both as regards number and amplitude.

Here, for the first time, certain combinations receive a name; here, certain vibrations are tones or noises [ Toene oder Misstoene ]. This represents exactly what our ear perceives of the three simultaneous tones. The fact that the musician can distinguish the three tones need not surprise us any more than the fact that anyone acquainted with the theory of colors can in green discover blue and yellow, but the combination curves in Plate I show that this difficulty is a slight one, for in these curves all the relations of the components successively recur.

In the case of chords of more than three notes, the relations are not so readily seen from the drawing, Plate II, for example. In the case of such chords, however, the skilled musician also finds difficulty in recognizing the separate notes. Why discords impress us unpleasantly I will leave my readers to judge at this time, though I may perhaps return to the subject subsequently in another paper.

Every tone [ Ton ] and every combination of tones, on striking our ear, causes vibrations on the drum of the ear, the succession of which may be represented by a curve. The succession of these vibrations alone gives us a conception sensation of the tone, and every alteration changes the conception sensation.

It is very simple, and by means of the figure will be easily understood from the following explanation:". Dieses steht mit der Klemme p in Verbindung ]. From the binding screw n another thin strip of metal [ ein duennes Metallstreifchen ] extends until over the middle of. By means of the projecting ends, the coil rests upon two bridges of a resonant case. All this part can, of course, be replaced by any other apparatus by means of which the well known 'galvanic tones' can be produced.

At the first condensation, the hammer-like wire d is pushed back; at the rarefaction, it cannot follow the retreating membrane, and the current traversing the strips remains broken [ Strom bleibt so lange unterbrochen bis, etc. In this way, each sound wave causes a breaking and closing [ ein Oeffnen und ein Schliessen ] of the current [ Stromes ].

II, fifth edition ; on breaking the circuit [ beim Unterbrechen des Stromes ], these atoms seek to regain their position of equilibrium. When this happens, in consequence of the reciprocal actions of elasticity and inertia, a number of vibrations are produced, and they give the longitudinal sound of the rod see as above. This is the case if the making and breaking of the current [ Unterbrechungen und Schliessungen des Stromes ] occur with comparative slowness. If they occur more rapidly than the oscillations of the iron core, due to its elasticity, the atoms cannot complete their course.

The paths described become shorter in proportion as the interruptions are more frequent, but then are just as numerous as these. The intensity also of this tone is proportional to that of the original one, for in proportion as this is more intense, the motions of the membrane are greater; the motions of the hammer, also, and finally the time during which the circuit remains opened, is greater, and consequently, up to a certain limit, the motions of the atoms in the reproducing wire are greater, we perceiving them as greater vibrations in just the same way as we would have perceived the original sound wave.

This is very easily done by making a momentary short circuit immediately in front of the coil by which means its action is temporarily interrupted. The consonants are for the most part reproduced pretty distinctly, but the vowels as yet not in an equal degree.

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The cause of this I will attempt to explain. Two vowels having the same pitch would differ in about the way represented by the curve Figs. But in the case of these generally small vibrations, the difference between large and small vibrations is more difficult to perceive than in the case of the original waves, and the vowel is therefore more or less indistinct.

HIS IPHONE 7 BROKE!?

Telephony by means of the electric current. On the middle of the membrane and parallel with it is a thin strip of platinum cemented fast at one end, whilst the other end is held by a binding post. From another binding post q extends a similar thin strip of metal as far as over the center of the membrane, and carries a little platinum wire directed toward the membrane at right angles to the strip and the surface of the membrane.

From binding post p , a conductor leads through a battery to a distant coil, which again is connected by another wire to binding post q. By these protruding ends, the coil is supported on two bridges of a soundboard. If now tones or combinations of tones are produced in the vicinity of the large opening of the conical cavity so that sufficiently strong waves enter it, these waves will set the membrane into vibration; by the outward motion of the membrane, the platinum strip cemented on it is pressed against the hammer-shaped wire d and the galvanic current [ Strom ] is closed [ geschlossen ]; by the inward motion of the membrane, the current is reopened.

The alternate magnetizings and demagnetizings of the core of the coil resulting therefrom will bring forth, if the alternation is slow, the longitudinal tone of the core, and if the alternation [ aufeinanderfolge ] is quicker, a longitudinal vibration of the same, the period of which corresponds to the period of the interruptions of the current [ Unterbrechungen des Stromes ] or of the vibrations of the membrane, and consequently to the rate or pitch of the tone which entered the conical cavity.

That means, according to the author, that 'The rod [ Stab ] reproduces the tone which was impressed upon the interrupting apparatus [ Unterbrechungsapparat ]. This was ascertained very simply by establishing for a given time a good shunt circuit directly before the coil, in consequence of which, of course, the activity of the latter ceased for that time. Philip Reis. Schliessen a galvanic circuit, connected with a distant station by a metallic conductor. If this operation occurs in the same medium in which the ear is placed, then at. Hence it is evidently the function of the auditory apparatus to impart with faithfulness to the auditory nerves every condensation and rarefaction which occurs in the surrounding medium.

On the other hand, the function of transmitting to our consciousness both the number and amplitude of the resulting vibrations occurring within a given time devolves upon the auditory nerves. For if several tones are generated simultaneously, then the sound-conducting medium is influenced by several forces, acting at the same time and subject to mechanical laws.

I might observe at the outset that the arrangement of the instruments for sending backwards and forwards is omitted for greater clearness, and likewise, as the whole thing is not presented as a completed fact, but only to call to the notice of a wider circle what has been already ascertained, the possibility of the working of the apparatus at a distance greater than the limited direct working allows at present is left out of consideration, since these points are easily accomplished by mechanical arrangements, and since the most important facts of the phenomena treated are not influenced thereby.

This on the one hand is connected by that metallic conductor with the tone receiver, Fig. The tone transmitter, Fig. An enlargement of the diameter of the tube impairs the working of the apparatus, and it is desirable that the inner surface of the tube be as smooth as possible. The smaller or rear end of the tube is closed by a collodion membrane o , and upon the center of the circular surface of this membrane rests one end c of the lever c d , the supporting point e of which is sustained by a bracket and is kept in electrical connection with the metallic conductor.

The proper lengths of the respective arms c e and e d of this lever are regulated by the laws of the lever. It is advisable to make the arm c e longer than the arm e d in order that the least motion at c may operate with greatest effect at d. It is also desirable that the lever itself be made as light as possible, that it may follow the movements of the membrane.

Any inaccuracy in the operation of the lever c d in this respect will produce false tones at the receiving station. When in a state of rest, the contact at d g is closed, and a delicate spring n maintains the lever in this position. When the air, which is in the tube a b of the apparatus, Fig. The lever c d follows the movements of the membrane, and opens and closes [ oeffnet und schliesst ] the galvanic circuit [ Kette ] at d g , so that at each condensation of the air in the tube, the circuit is opened, and at each rarefaction the circuit is closed [ ein Oeffnen and ein Schliessen erfolgt ].

But the beam [ Balken ] i attached to the armature communicates these corresponding vibrations of the armature to the air surrounding the apparatus Fig. It must not be ignored, however, that while the apparatus described reproduces the exact number of the original vibrations,.

Quilting, of Frankfort-a-M, according to which the capacity of the apparatus to transmit tones to a considerable distance clearly and with their characteristic timbre Klang-farbe is fully established. Reis was connected, two remote parts of the city were united, and although it was not possible with the present construction of the apparatus to transmit spoken words [ gesprochenen worte ], they succeeded so well with the tones that were. Q, adds, who availed themselves of the opportunity of witnessing the experiment, agreed that the possibility is before us of making one's self understood verbally at any distance in the way shown by Mr.

Ladd, Member:". Albert's, by whom I have been informed that you have purchased one of my newly invented instruments telephone , though I will do all in my power to give you the most ample explanations on the subject. I am sure that personal communication would have been preferable, specially as I was told that you will show the apparatus at your next scientific meeting, and thus introduce the apparatus in your country.

By every condensation the tympanum of our ear is pressed inwards, by every rarefaction it is pressed outward, and thus the tympanum performs oscillations like a pendulum. The smaller or greater number of the oscillations made in a second gives us, by help of the small bones in our ear and the auditory nerve, the idea of a higher or lower tune. However, these were the principles which guided me in my invention; they were sufficient to induce me to try the reproduction of tunes at any distance. It would be long to relate all the fruitless attempts I made until I found out the proportions of the instrument and the necessary tension of the membrane.

The apparatus you have bought is now what may be found most simple, and works without failing when arranged carefully in the following manner:". In the middle of the latter is fixed a small platina plate to which a flattened copper wire is soldered, on purpose to conduct the galvanic current. Within the circle you will further remark two screws; one of them is terminated by a little pit in which you put a little drop of quicksilver, the other is pored.

The angle, which you will find lying on the membrane, is to be placed according to the letters, with the little hole a on the point a , the little platina foot b into the quicksilver screw, the other platina foot will then come on the platina plate in the middle of the membrane. From here it goes through the conductor to the other station B, and from there returns to the battery. A second little box is fixed on the first one, and laid down on the steel.

On the small side of the lower box you will find the corresponding part of the complementary telegraph. The stream will be reestablished at every rarefaction. In this manner the steel axis at station B will be magnetic once for every full vibration, and, as magnetism never enters nor leaves a metal without disturbing the equilibrium of the atoms, the steel axis at station B must repeat the vibrations at station A, and then reproduce the sounds which caused them.

Any sound will be reproduced if strong enough to set the membrane in motion. At every opening of the stream, and next following shutting, the station A will hear a little clap, produced by the attraction of the steel spring. Another little clap will be heard at station B in the wire spiral. By multiplying the claps and producing them in different measures, you will be able as well as I am to get understood by your correspondent. Albert, mechanician at Frankfort. I have enabled him to offer them at the prices of 21 and 14 florins 12 and 8 Prussian thalers in two qualities, which differ only in the external outfit.

The instruments can also be had directly from me at the same price by cash payment. Every apparatus is examined by me before being shipped, and has attached my name, the serial number and the date of construction. These two parts are to be placed at such a distance from each other that singing or the sound of a musical instrument can be heard in no other manner except through the apparatus from one station to another.

The battery must be sufficient to produce at station A the attraction of the armature of the electromagnet placed at one side three or four six-inch Bunsen cells are sufficient for several hundred feet of distance. From here the current goes through the small telegraph apparatus e f , then to the key of the station C and through the coil surrounding i back to B.

By placing the cover tightly over the axis of the coil, the tones at C are greatly strengthened. Besides the human voice [ menschlichen stimme ] there can be reproduced according to my experience just as well the tones [ toene ] of good organ pipes from F to C and those of the piano; to that end the box a must be placed on the sounding board of the piano; out of thirteen chords, a skilled experimenter could make out ten clearly. The telegraph apparatus placed on one side is evidently unnecessary for the reproduction of tones, but it is a very useful addition for convenient experimenting.

With its aid, it is. Therefore I put a dactyl for every 5 strokes, hence". The trials made in this direction had, till now, produced no satisfactory results because the vibrations of sound-conducting bodies soon diminish so much in force that they are no more perceptible for our senses. Those who are but superficially acquainted with natural science do not see the many difficulties this problem offers, if they are at all acquainted with it.

Thus, about eleven years ago, a young man, Mr. Philipp Reis, at present teacher of natural science at the Gamier Institute for Boys at Friedrichsdorf, near Homburg, had the hardihood to work at the solution of this problem. But soon he was obliged to desist from it because his very first effort seemed to convince him of the impossibility of a solution.

Later, however, after further studies and many experiments, he saw that his first effort was but a rudimentary one, and by no means convincing. However, he did not recommence to attack the question seriously for some time, not feeling himself strong enough to vanquish the obstacles on his road, although he never banished his early idea entirely from his thoughts.

Later he put this question more methodically: 'How does our ear perceive the composite vibrations of all the organs of speech acting at the. A body made to vibrate through any impulse affects the surrounding air and causes waves in it which follow each other at the same rate as the vibrations of the body. As those rings on the water consist in swellings and depressions, so also the vibrations of the air consist of alternate condensations and rarefactions.

If they reach our ear, every condensation presses the tympanum toward the interior of the cavity and puts in motion the adjacent group of small bones which communicates the motion to the liquid of the cochlea, in which the auditory nerves terminate. The latter are excited and produce the sensation of sound. The latter is the higher the quicker the condensations follow each other and the louder the stronger or higher the waves rise, as it were.

And nevertheless we receive the most varied auditory impressions, we distinguish the sound of the voices, we hear at the same time in quite different directions and can distinguish the different sources -- nay, in a complete large orchestra, each of the numerous instruments is specially noticed by its peculiar sound, so that we decompose at every moment the total impression into its several parts according to the height and depth, strength and weakness, or according to the timbre or quality [ Klangfarbe ]. The wave lines cross each other, strengthen each other at some points, weaken each other at others, and the surface has a ruffled,.

But nevertheless, our eye can detect the different systems of rings and can trace them back to their several causes. If we succeed in transmitting with the galvanic current the oscillations of a sounding body to a distance, so that there another body is put to equally rapid and, in respect to each other, equally strong oscillations, the problem of 'telephoning' is solved.

The ear will distinguish at the distant points not only the single tones, according to their varying height and depth, but also to the proportionate force of the vibrations, and not only single melodies, but the performance of a whole orchestra -- yes, even speech must be heard at the same time in places very distant from each other. Reis was the first one to prove by experiments the possibility of solving this problem. He has succeeded in constructing an apparatus to which he gives the name Telephone, and which enables one to reproduce tones with the aid of electricity at any given distance.

Already, in October, , he made rather successful experiments with a very simple, rudely made apparatus before a numerous audience at Frankfort. On July 4th of the present year, he presented an essentially improved apparatus at an assembly of the 'Physical Union' which transmitted by closed doors and windows a melody sung moderately loud, to a distance of about three hundred feet, so that it could be heard plainly.

These wonderful results are obtained with the following simple apparatus, which we show here in one-fourth of its size:". The latter is closed with a fine membrane skin from the intestines of a hog tightly stretched. A narrow strip of plating m , connected with the screw post d , touches directly the membrane on its center; a slender plating point k , attached to the angle a b , touches the strip of plating which rests on the membrane.

If one sings into the mouthpiece S by filling the same entirely with the mouth , the thin membrane vibrates and the attached plating strip receives likewise a vibrating motion so that it is alternately pressed against and leaves the plating point k. At every vibration of the membrane, an interruption of the electric current [ unterbrechung des electrischen Stromes ] takes place by the plating point parting from the plating strip. This is the reproducing apparatus. If the motions follow with a certain rapidity, they produce a tone which is rendered audible by the sounding box.

As the rate of the interruptions depends on the pitch of the tone that has been sung into the mouthpiece, the same tone is sounded with the same pitch from the sounding box. The length of the circuit has no influence upon this. It is true the electric current loses force the farther it goes, but there is no reason why relays should not be employed, the same as in telegraphing, and with their aid any number of reproducing apparatuses be set into simultaneous vibrations.

Reis has endeavored to give to his improved apparatus a form which should also be pleasing to the eye, so that it might fill worthily its place in any physical laboratory. He has applied, moreover, to the side of the telephone, as well as to the reproducing apparatus, a small telegraph arrangement, which is a very good addition for convenient experimenting.

It is indicated in the drawing by the letters e f h g. Reis himself manufactures the principal parts of the telephone, for which no small amount of physical knowledge and experience is necessary. The mechanician, Wilhelm Albert,. Reis of Friedrichsdorf in the instrument which he invented and named 'the telephone,' for transmitting tones telegraphically by means of the periodic impact of the sound waves of the same against an elastic skin.

An exact reproduction of the sounds does not take place, however, but only an imitation; for this reason it cannot be questioned here of transverse vibrations [ transversal. Schwingungen ]. A phenomenon [ Erscheinung ] has otherwise been heard of, which belongs to the aforementioned class, in which the intensity and the timbre [ Klang ] of the sound accompanying it the phenomenon depend, among other things, on the strength of the current [ Stromstaerke ] and on the number of breaks of the same, and in which, as it seems, the pitch of the tones also can vary under different circumstances.

We can, however, hardly imagine by what arrangements it could be feasible to coax tones of any given height or depth out of an iron or metal tube split on one side, while it the tube is affected by the alternate currents of an induction apparatus the coil Rolle of which surrounds it. Yet the possibility cannot be controverted that the principle of Neef's circuit breaker [ Unterbrecher ] might contribute to the solution of the problem in question. It has been employed for local purposes either with or without modifications in the study and investigation of acoustic phenomena.

Thus, Petrina has used the principle of Neef's circuit breaker [ Unterbrecher ] for his electric harmonica in this way, that instead of the Neef hammer, a little rod was chosen, the transverse vibrations of which rendered the tone. It appears from Legat's published communications that". Legat mentions in his paper all that has been done thus far toward the realization of that project, and we borrow from it that part only which throws some light on the construction of a telegraphic apparatus with which it is said to be possible to produce vibrations and make sounds in any desired manner and through which the employment of electricity is said to make it feasible to.

The transmitter consists in a conical tube a b about 15 cm. The narrower back opening is closed by a membrane of collodion o , and on the middle of the circular surface formed by this membrane rests one end c of lever c d , the fulcrum of which is held by a support and remains connected with the metallic circuit. This lever, one arm c e of which must be considerably longer than e d , should be as light as possible so as to follow easily the motions of the membrane, as an uncertain obedience [ folgen ] on part of lever c d would produce imperfect tones at the receiving station.

In the state of rest, the contact d g is shut and a weak spring n holds the lever fast at rest. On the metallic support f , which is connected with one of the poles of the battery is a spring g , with a contact which touches the contact of lever c d at f and the position of which is regulated by screw h ; over tube a b a disk must be placed which encircles the outer circumference of the tube closely, so that the efficacy of the apparatus may not be impaired through the effect of the air waves coming round and striking against the rear end.

This disk at right angles with longitudinal axis of the tube measures about fifty? The receiver page U. Opposite the electromagnet is an armature connected with a lever as long as possible, but light and broad, which latter, with the armature, is fastened pendulum-like on the support k. Its motions are regulated through screw l or". Lever c d follows the motions of the membrane and opens or closes the circuit according as a condensation or a rarefaction of the air inside takes place. As a consequence, the electromagnet in m m Fig. Through lever i connected with the armature, similar vibrations are communicated to the surrounding air and the increasing effect of the sounding board helping the tones so produced finally reach the ear of the listener.

In respect to the operations of this apparatus, the author remarks that the receiver does reproduce the exact number of the original vibrations, but that a reproduction of the original intensity has not yet been attained. For that reason, it is added, small differences in the vibrations are appreciated with difficulty, and in the practical experiments made thus far, it was possible to transmit with astonishing faithfulness chords, airs, etc.

The apparatus just described is said to have been one of the constructions which Reis has used himself in his experiments. The underlying principles might give hopes of a farther improvement of the apparatus, but the telephone which, according to later reports, Reis has finally decided upon has the disposition represented on page U. On the middle of the latter, a thin platinum disk is fastened, from which on one side a platinum strip establishes circuit connection with the contact of the key at e , from which place the metallic connection is effected with one end of the coil of a small electromagnet provided with a spring armature, whilst the other end is in contact with screw f.

The reproducing apparatus C set up at the receiving station consists simply of a coil about six inches long formed by". By means of screw i and of the key at h g , the coil is thrown into the circuit and the connection of both apparatuses is effected in the manner mentioned, a battery being placed at B, the course of the current is easily followed out. It can flow from B through d c and c b to e and f , and from here to the receiving station, and at i return to the battery, or it can start in the opposite direction according as d or i forms the starting point of the current.

The circuit can be broken at will at each of the two stations by pressing the key lever, and a connection can be established thus in either direction, but the. The timbre [ Klang ] or quality of the sounds thus reproduced is not pleasant -- they are almost like the sounds of toy trumpets, at times also like the buzz of a fly caught in a spider's web and the like, yet the experiments of Reis are certainly interesting enough to challenge attention. According to communications made on this subject by Reis, he has succeeded in reproducing the tones of organ pipes not covered, and those of a piano; in this latter case, the transmitter was placed on the sounding board of the piano.

This is an instrument for telegraphing notes of the same pitch. Any noise producing a single vibration of the air, when repeated regularly a certain number of tunes in the second not less than thirty-two , produces, as is well known, a musical sound.

In Art. A person when singing any note causes the air to vibrate so many times per second, the number varying with the pitch of the note he sings, the higher the note, the greater being the number of vibrations. If we then by any means can get these vibrations to break a closed circuit in which the coil just mentioned is included, the note sung at one station can be reproduced at least so far as pitch is concerned at another.

Reis' telephone invented accomplishes this in the following way:". The hole at the top is closed by a piece of bladder S, tightly stretched on a circular frame; a mouthpiece M is attached to the front opening. A thin strip of platinum is glued to the membrane and connected with the binding screw a , in which a wire from the battery B is fixed.

A tripod e f g rests on the skin. The feet e and f lie in metal cups on the circular frame over which the skin is stretched. One of these, f , rests in a cup containing mercury, and is connected with the binding screw b. The third foot g , consisting of a platinum point, lies on the circular end of the strip of platinum just mentioned. This point, being placed on the center of the oscillating membrane, acts like a hopper, and hops up and down with it. It is easy to understand how, for every vibration of the membrane, the hopper will be thrown.

The receiving apparatus R consists of a coil of wire placed in circuit, enclosing an iron wire, both being fixed on a sounding box. The connections of the various parts of the circuit are easily learned from the figure. Suppose a person to sing a note at the mouthpiece which produces three hundred vibrations a second, the circuit is broken by the bladder three hundred times, and the iron wire ticking at this rate gives out a note of the same pitch. The note is weak, and in quality resembles the sound of a toy trumpet.

Wright uses a receiving apparatus of the following kind: the line current is made to pass through the primary coil of a small induction coil. In the secondary circuit he places two sheets of paper, silvered on one side, back to back, so as to act as a condenser. Each current that comes from the sending apparatus produces a current in the secondary circuit which charges and discharges the condenser, each discharge being accompanied by a sound like the sharp tap of a small hammer.

The musical notes are rendered by these electric discharges, and are loud enough to be heard in a large hall. All contended that the inventions were not novel, and set up prior inventions and discoveries by other persons and other patentees. Of the many persons named in the answers by whom the inventions covered by the first patent were averred to have been invented, known, or used prior to Bell's invention, in the arguments in this Court, the following were chiefly relied upon.

McDonough of Chicago, for which he applied for a patent in ; and 6 the machine constructed in New York in by Dr. Van der Weyde. The invention of Gray was set forth in a caveat filed in the Patent Office February 14, The following is a copy of that caveat, and of the office marks and proceedings therein:. Attached to this diaphragm is a light metal rod A' or other suitable conductor of electricity which extends into a vessel B made of glass or other insulating material, having its lower end closed by a plug, which may be of metal, or through which passes a conductor b , forming part of the circuit.

This vessel is filled with some liquid possessing high resistance, such, for instance, as water, so that the vibrations of the plunger or rod A', which does not quite touch the conductor b , will cause variations in resistance and consequently in the potential of the current passing through the rod A'. Any citizen of the United States who makes any new invention or discovery and desires further time to mature the same may, on payment of the fees required by law, file in the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the design thereof and of its distinguishing characteristics and praying protection of his right until he shall have matured his invention.

Such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from the filing thereof, and if application is made within the year by any other person for a patent with which such caveat would in any manner interfere, the Commissioner shall deposit the description, specification, drawings and model of such application in like manner in the confidential archives of the office and give notice thereof by mail to the person by whom the caveat was filed.

If such person desires to avail himself of his caveat, he shall file his description, specification, drawings, and model within three months from the time of placing the notice in the post office in Washington, with the usual time required for transmitting it to the caveator added thereto, which time shall be endorsed on the notice. An alien shall have the privilege herein granted if he has resided in the United States one year next preceding the filing of his caveat and has made oath of his intention to become a citizen. Any citizen of the United States who makes any new invention or discovery and desires further time to mature the same may, on payment of the fees required by law, file in the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the design.

Such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from the filing thereof, and if application is made within the year by any other person for a patent with which such caveat would in any manner interfere, the Commissioner shall deposit the description, specification, drawings and model of such application in like manner in the confidential archives of the office, and give notice thereof by mail to the person by whom the caveat was filed.

An alien shall have the privilege herein granted, if he has resided in the United States one year next preceding the filing of his caveat, and has made oath of his intention to become a citizen. One contention of all the respondents in regard to the Gray invention and caveat is stated in the answers of the Overland People's and Molecular cases in the following language:. The Overland Company and the People's Company further contended that certain evidence cited by their counsel, and which is contained or referred to in the report of the argument of their counsel infra justified the inference that the Gray caveat was filed in the Department of the Interior prior to the filing of Bell's application, specification, and claims of ; that information of this caveat was surreptitiously furnished to Bell's solicitors; that Bell's specifications and claims as originally filed varied from his specifications and claims as stated in the patent in several important respects; that these changes were made within four days.

The following copy of these specifications, known as the Bell George Brown specification, is from the record in the People's case, and is referred to in argument in this connection, and other evidence in this respect on which counsel on one side or the other relied is also referred to in the arguments. The origin and nature of this specification is fully set forth in the argument of counsel hereafter.

This armature in vibrating makes and breaks the main circuit, producing an intermittent current upon the line wire. I have found, however, that upon this plan, the limit to the number of signals that can be sent simultaneously over the same circuit is very speedily reached, for when a number of Transmitting Instruments having different rates of vibration are simultaneously making and breaking the same circuit, the effect upon the main line is practically equivalent to one continuous current.

The advantages [claimed for the undulatory current over the] [bu]I claim to derive from the use of an undulatory current in place of a[eu] merely intermittent one, are,". That a very much larger number of signals can be transmitted simultaneously over the same circuit. That communication in both directions is established without the necessity of using special induction coils.

When, therefore, a permanent magnet is caused to vibrate in front of the pole of an electromagnet,. That the difference between an undulatory and an intermittent current may be more clearly understood, I shall describe the condition of the electrical current when [bu]the attempt is made to transmit[eu] two musical notes [of different pitch are] simultaneously [transmitted along the Same wire] [bu]first upon the one plan and then upon the other. Then their rates of vibration are in the ratio of I, the rate is as ; in Fig. II, as ; and in Fig. III, the makes and breaks are of equal duration.

Hence, the sinusoidal curve A or B [ Footnote 4 ] Fig. IV represents graphically the electrical undulations induced in a circuit by the vibration of a body capable of inductive action. IV are in the ratio aforesaid, of -- that is, four oscillations of A are made in the same time as five oscillations of B. IV , which is the algebraical sum of the sinusoidal curves A and B. The armature c can be set in vibration in a variety of ways, one of which is by wind, and in vibrating it yields a musical note of a certain definite pitch. The vibratory current passing through the coils of the distant electromagnet f causes vibration in its armature h when the armatures c h of the two instruments A I are normally in unison with one another; but the armature h is unaffected by the passage of the undulatory current when the pitches of the two instruments A I are different [from one another].

When the armature of any one of the instruments is set in vibration, all the other instruments on the circuit which are in unison with it respond, but those which have normally a different rate of vibration remain silent. Thus, if A Fig. VI is set in vibration, the armatures of A1 and A2 will vibrate also, but all the others on the circuit remain still. So also, if B1 is caused to emit its musical note, the instruments B B2 respond. They continue sounding so long as the mechanical vibration of B1 is continued, but become silent the moment its motion stops.

The duration of the sound may be made to signify the dot or dash of the Morse alphabet, and thus a telegraphic dispatch can be transmitted by alternately interrupting and renewing the sound. Thus, the signals of A are repeated by A1 and A2, but by no other instruments upon the circuit; the signals of B2 by B and Bl, and the signals of C1 by C and C2, whether A, B2, and C1 are successively or simultaneously set in vibration.

Thus, when c vibrates with little amplitude, a very soft musical note proceeds from h , and when c vibrates forcibly, the amplitude of vibration of h is considerably increased, and the sound becomes louder. So if A and B Fig. VI may be set in vibration has been stated above to be by wind. Another mode is shown [by] [bu]in[eu] Fig. VII, [which] [bu]whereby[eu] motion can be imparted to the armature by means of the human voice or by the tones of a musical instrument.

When a loud sound is uttered in the cone, the membrane a is set in vibration, the armature c is forced to partake of the motion, and thus electrical undulations are caused upon the circuit E b e f g. These undulations are similar in form to the air vibrations caused by the sound The undulatory current passing through the electromagnet f influences [the] [bu]its[eu] armature h to copy the motion[s] of the armature c. A system of telegraphy in which the receiver is set in vibration by the employment of vibratory or undulatory currents of electricity.

The method of creating an undulatory current of electricity by the vibration of a permanent magnet or other body capable of inductive action. The method of inducing undulations in a continuous voltaic current by the vibration or motion of bodies capable of inductive action. The method of and apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically by inducing in a continuous voltaic circuit [bu]causing electrical[eu] undulations similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying said vocal or other sounds the whole for operation substantially as [bu]herein[eu] shown and described.

I include in the category of bodies capable of inductive action brass, copper and other metals, as well as iron and steel. A system of telegraphy in which the receiver is set in vibration by the employment of undulatory currents of electricity. The combination of a permanent magnet or other body capable of inductive action with a closed circuit, so that the vibration of the one shall produce electrical undulations in the other or in itself. The method of producing undulations in a continuous voltaic current by the vibration or motion of bodies capable of inductive action, or by the vibration or motion of the conducting wire itself in the neighborhood of such bodies.

The method of and apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically, as herein described, by causing electrical undulations similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompany ing the said vocal or other sounds. Bell in the winter of , shortly before I left for England.

I can fix the exact date by reference to my books and papers, but have not these at hand now. I might observe at the outset that the arrangement of the instruments for sending backwards and forwards is omitted for greater clearness, and likewise, as the whole thing is not presented as a completed fact, but only to call to the notice of a wider circle what has been already ascertained, the possibility of the working of the apparatus at a distance greater than the limited direct working allows at present is left out of consideration, since these points are easily accomplished by mechanical arrangements, and since the most important facts of the phenomena treated are not influenced thereby.

This on the one hand is connected by that metallic conductor with the tone receiver, Fig. The tone transmitter, Fig.

The Telephone Cases, 126 U.S. 1 (1888)

An enlargement of the diameter of the tube impairs the working of the apparatus, and it is desirable that the inner surface of the tube be as smooth as possible. The smaller or rear end of the tube is closed by a collodion membrane o , and upon the center of the circular surface of this membrane rests one end c of the lever c d , the supporting point e of which is sustained by a bracket and is kept in electrical connection with the metallic conductor.

The proper lengths of the respective arms c e and e d of this lever are regulated by the laws of the lever. It is advisable to make the arm c e longer than the arm e d in order that the least motion at c may operate with greatest effect at d. It is also desirable that the lever itself be made as light as possible, that it may follow the movements of the membrane. Any inaccuracy in the operation of the lever c d in this respect will produce false tones at the receiving station. When in a state of rest, the contact at d g is closed, and a delicate spring n maintains the lever in this position.

When the air, which is in the tube a b of the apparatus, Fig. The lever c d follows the movements of the membrane, and opens and closes [ oeffnet und schliesst ] the galvanic circuit [ Kette ] at d g , so that at each condensation of the air in the tube, the circuit is opened, and at each rarefaction the circuit is closed [ ein Oeffnen and ein Schliessen erfolgt ]. But the beam [ Balken ] i attached to the armature communicates these corresponding vibrations of the armature to the air surrounding the apparatus Fig.

It must not be ignored, however, that while the apparatus described reproduces the exact number of the original vibrations,. Quilting, of Frankfort-a-M, according to which the capacity of the apparatus to transmit tones to a considerable distance clearly and with their characteristic timbre Klang-farbe is fully established. Reis was connected, two remote parts of the city were united, and although it was not possible with the present construction of the apparatus to transmit spoken words [ gesprochenen worte ], they succeeded so well with the tones that were.

Q, adds, who availed themselves of the opportunity of witnessing the experiment, agreed that the possibility is before us of making one's self understood verbally at any distance in the way shown by Mr. Ladd, Member:". Albert's, by whom I have been informed that you have purchased one of my newly invented instruments telephone , though I will do all in my power to give you the most ample explanations on the subject. I am sure that personal communication would have been preferable, specially as I was told that you will show the apparatus at your next scientific meeting, and thus introduce the apparatus in your country.

By every condensation the tympanum of our ear is pressed inwards, by every rarefaction it is pressed outward, and thus the tympanum performs oscillations like a pendulum. The smaller or greater number of the oscillations made in a second gives us, by help of the small bones in our ear and the auditory nerve, the idea of a higher or lower tune.

However, these were the principles which guided me in my invention; they were sufficient to induce me to try the reproduction of tunes at any distance. It would be long to relate all the fruitless attempts I made until I found out the proportions of the instrument and the necessary tension of the membrane. The apparatus you have bought is now what may be found most simple, and works without failing when arranged carefully in the following manner:".

In the middle of the latter is fixed a small platina plate to which a flattened copper wire is soldered, on purpose to conduct the galvanic current. Within the circle you will further remark two screws; one of them is terminated by a little pit in which you put a little drop of quicksilver, the other is pored. The angle, which you will find lying on the membrane, is to be placed according to the letters, with the little hole a on the point a , the little platina foot b into the quicksilver screw, the other platina foot will then come on the platina plate in the middle of the membrane.

From here it goes through the conductor to the other station B, and from there returns to the battery. A second little box is fixed on the first one, and laid down on the steel. On the small side of the lower box you will find the corresponding part of the complementary telegraph. The stream will be reestablished at every rarefaction. In this manner the steel axis at station B will be magnetic once for every full vibration, and, as magnetism never enters nor leaves a metal without disturbing the equilibrium of the atoms, the steel axis at station B must repeat the vibrations at station A, and then reproduce the sounds which caused them.

Any sound will be reproduced if strong enough to set the membrane in motion. At every opening of the stream, and next following shutting, the station A will hear a little clap, produced by the attraction of the steel spring. Another little clap will be heard at station B in the wire spiral. By multiplying the claps and producing them in different measures, you will be able as well as I am to get understood by your correspondent. Albert, mechanician at Frankfort. I have enabled him to offer them at the prices of 21 and 14 florins 12 and 8 Prussian thalers in two qualities, which differ only in the external outfit.

The instruments can also be had directly from me at the same price by cash payment. Every apparatus is examined by me before being shipped, and has attached my name, the serial number and the date of construction. These two parts are to be placed at such a distance from each other that singing or the sound of a musical instrument can be heard in no other manner except through the apparatus from one station to another.

The battery must be sufficient to produce at station A the attraction of the armature of the electromagnet placed at one side three or four six-inch Bunsen cells are sufficient for several hundred feet of distance. From here the current goes through the small telegraph apparatus e f , then to the key of the station C and through the coil surrounding i back to B. By placing the cover tightly over the axis of the coil, the tones at C are greatly strengthened. Besides the human voice [ menschlichen stimme ] there can be reproduced according to my experience just as well the tones [ toene ] of good organ pipes from F to C and those of the piano; to that end the box a must be placed on the sounding board of the piano; out of thirteen chords, a skilled experimenter could make out ten clearly.

The telegraph apparatus placed on one side is evidently unnecessary for the reproduction of tones, but it is a very useful addition for convenient experimenting. With its aid, it is. Therefore I put a dactyl for every 5 strokes, hence". The trials made in this direction had, till now, produced no satisfactory results because the vibrations of sound-conducting bodies soon diminish so much in force that they are no more perceptible for our senses. Those who are but superficially acquainted with natural science do not see the many difficulties this problem offers, if they are at all acquainted with it.

Thus, about eleven years ago, a young man, Mr. Philipp Reis, at present teacher of natural science at the Gamier Institute for Boys at Friedrichsdorf, near Homburg, had the hardihood to work at the solution of this problem. But soon he was obliged to desist from it because his very first effort seemed to convince him of the impossibility of a solution. Later, however, after further studies and many experiments, he saw that his first effort was but a rudimentary one, and by no means convincing.

However, he did not recommence to attack the question seriously for some time, not feeling himself strong enough to vanquish the obstacles on his road, although he never banished his early idea entirely from his thoughts. Later he put this question more methodically: 'How does our ear perceive the composite vibrations of all the organs of speech acting at the. A body made to vibrate through any impulse affects the surrounding air and causes waves in it which follow each other at the same rate as the vibrations of the body. As those rings on the water consist in swellings and depressions, so also the vibrations of the air consist of alternate condensations and rarefactions.

If they reach our ear, every condensation presses the tympanum toward the interior of the cavity and puts in motion the adjacent group of small bones which communicates the motion to the liquid of the cochlea, in which the auditory nerves terminate. The latter are excited and produce the sensation of sound. The latter is the higher the quicker the condensations follow each other and the louder the stronger or higher the waves rise, as it were. And nevertheless we receive the most varied auditory impressions, we distinguish the sound of the voices, we hear at the same time in quite different directions and can distinguish the different sources -- nay, in a complete large orchestra, each of the numerous instruments is specially noticed by its peculiar sound, so that we decompose at every moment the total impression into its several parts according to the height and depth, strength and weakness, or according to the timbre or quality [ Klangfarbe ].

The wave lines cross each other, strengthen each other at some points, weaken each other at others, and the surface has a ruffled,. But nevertheless, our eye can detect the different systems of rings and can trace them back to their several causes. If we succeed in transmitting with the galvanic current the oscillations of a sounding body to a distance, so that there another body is put to equally rapid and, in respect to each other, equally strong oscillations, the problem of 'telephoning' is solved. The ear will distinguish at the distant points not only the single tones, according to their varying height and depth, but also to the proportionate force of the vibrations, and not only single melodies, but the performance of a whole orchestra -- yes, even speech must be heard at the same time in places very distant from each other.

Reis was the first one to prove by experiments the possibility of solving this problem.

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He has succeeded in constructing an apparatus to which he gives the name Telephone, and which enables one to reproduce tones with the aid of electricity at any given distance. Already, in October, , he made rather successful experiments with a very simple, rudely made apparatus before a numerous audience at Frankfort.

On July 4th of the present year, he presented an essentially improved apparatus at an assembly of the 'Physical Union' which transmitted by closed doors and windows a melody sung moderately loud, to a distance of about three hundred feet, so that it could be heard plainly. These wonderful results are obtained with the following simple apparatus, which we show here in one-fourth of its size:". The latter is closed with a fine membrane skin from the intestines of a hog tightly stretched. A narrow strip of plating m , connected with the screw post d , touches directly the membrane on its center; a slender plating point k , attached to the angle a b , touches the strip of plating which rests on the membrane.

If one sings into the mouthpiece S by filling the same entirely with the mouth , the thin membrane vibrates and the attached plating strip receives likewise a vibrating motion so that it is alternately pressed against and leaves the plating point k. At every vibration of the membrane, an interruption of the electric current [ unterbrechung des electrischen Stromes ] takes place by the plating point parting from the plating strip. This is the reproducing apparatus.

If the motions follow with a certain rapidity, they produce a tone which is rendered audible by the sounding box. As the rate of the interruptions depends on the pitch of the tone that has been sung into the mouthpiece, the same tone is sounded with the same pitch from the sounding box. The length of the circuit has no influence upon this. It is true the electric current loses force the farther it goes, but there is no reason why relays should not be employed, the same as in telegraphing, and with their aid any number of reproducing apparatuses be set into simultaneous vibrations.

Reis has endeavored to give to his improved apparatus a form which should also be pleasing to the eye, so that it might fill worthily its place in any physical laboratory. He has applied, moreover, to the side of the telephone, as well as to the reproducing apparatus, a small telegraph arrangement, which is a very good addition for convenient experimenting.

It is indicated in the drawing by the letters e f h g. Reis himself manufactures the principal parts of the telephone, for which no small amount of physical knowledge and experience is necessary. The mechanician, Wilhelm Albert,. Reis of Friedrichsdorf in the instrument which he invented and named 'the telephone,' for transmitting tones telegraphically by means of the periodic impact of the sound waves of the same against an elastic skin. An exact reproduction of the sounds does not take place, however, but only an imitation; for this reason it cannot be questioned here of transverse vibrations [ transversal.

Schwingungen ]. A phenomenon [ Erscheinung ] has otherwise been heard of, which belongs to the aforementioned class, in which the intensity and the timbre [ Klang ] of the sound accompanying it the phenomenon depend, among other things, on the strength of the current [ Stromstaerke ] and on the number of breaks of the same, and in which, as it seems, the pitch of the tones also can vary under different circumstances.

U.S. Supreme Court

We can, however, hardly imagine by what arrangements it could be feasible to coax tones of any given height or depth out of an iron or metal tube split on one side, while it the tube is affected by the alternate currents of an induction apparatus the coil Rolle of which surrounds it. Yet the possibility cannot be controverted that the principle of Neef's circuit breaker [ Unterbrecher ] might contribute to the solution of the problem in question. It has been employed for local purposes either with or without modifications in the study and investigation of acoustic phenomena.

Thus, Petrina has used the principle of Neef's circuit breaker [ Unterbrecher ] for his electric harmonica in this way, that instead of the Neef hammer, a little rod was chosen, the transverse vibrations of which rendered the tone. It appears from Legat's published communications that". Legat mentions in his paper all that has been done thus far toward the realization of that project, and we borrow from it that part only which throws some light on the construction of a telegraphic apparatus with which it is said to be possible to produce vibrations and make sounds in any desired manner and through which the employment of electricity is said to make it feasible to.

The transmitter consists in a conical tube a b about 15 cm. The narrower back opening is closed by a membrane of collodion o , and on the middle of the circular surface formed by this membrane rests one end c of lever c d , the fulcrum of which is held by a support and remains connected with the metallic circuit. This lever, one arm c e of which must be considerably longer than e d , should be as light as possible so as to follow easily the motions of the membrane, as an uncertain obedience [ folgen ] on part of lever c d would produce imperfect tones at the receiving station.

In the state of rest, the contact d g is shut and a weak spring n holds the lever fast at rest. On the metallic support f , which is connected with one of the poles of the battery is a spring g , with a contact which touches the contact of lever c d at f and the position of which is regulated by screw h ; over tube a b a disk must be placed which encircles the outer circumference of the tube closely, so that the efficacy of the apparatus may not be impaired through the effect of the air waves coming round and striking against the rear end.

This disk at right angles with longitudinal axis of the tube measures about fifty? The receiver page U. Opposite the electromagnet is an armature connected with a lever as long as possible, but light and broad, which latter, with the armature, is fastened pendulum-like on the support k. Its motions are regulated through screw l or". Lever c d follows the motions of the membrane and opens or closes the circuit according as a condensation or a rarefaction of the air inside takes place.

As a consequence, the electromagnet in m m Fig. Through lever i connected with the armature, similar vibrations are communicated to the surrounding air and the increasing effect of the sounding board helping the tones so produced finally reach the ear of the listener. In respect to the operations of this apparatus, the author remarks that the receiver does reproduce the exact number of the original vibrations, but that a reproduction of the original intensity has not yet been attained.

For that reason, it is added, small differences in the vibrations are appreciated with difficulty, and in the practical experiments made thus far, it was possible to transmit with astonishing faithfulness chords, airs, etc. The apparatus just described is said to have been one of the constructions which Reis has used himself in his experiments. The underlying principles might give hopes of a farther improvement of the apparatus, but the telephone which, according to later reports, Reis has finally decided upon has the disposition represented on page U.

On the middle of the latter, a thin platinum disk is fastened, from which on one side a platinum strip establishes circuit connection with the contact of the key at e , from which place the metallic connection is effected with one end of the coil of a small electromagnet provided with a spring armature, whilst the other end is in contact with screw f. The reproducing apparatus C set up at the receiving station consists simply of a coil about six inches long formed by". By means of screw i and of the key at h g , the coil is thrown into the circuit and the connection of both apparatuses is effected in the manner mentioned, a battery being placed at B, the course of the current is easily followed out.

It can flow from B through d c and c b to e and f , and from here to the receiving station, and at i return to the battery, or it can start in the opposite direction according as d or i forms the starting point of the current. The circuit can be broken at will at each of the two stations by pressing the key lever, and a connection can be established thus in either direction, but the. The timbre [ Klang ] or quality of the sounds thus reproduced is not pleasant -- they are almost like the sounds of toy trumpets, at times also like the buzz of a fly caught in a spider's web and the like, yet the experiments of Reis are certainly interesting enough to challenge attention.

According to communications made on this subject by Reis, he has succeeded in reproducing the tones of organ pipes not covered, and those of a piano; in this latter case, the transmitter was placed on the sounding board of the piano. This is an instrument for telegraphing notes of the same pitch. Any noise producing a single vibration of the air, when repeated regularly a certain number of tunes in the second not less than thirty-two , produces, as is well known, a musical sound. In Art. A person when singing any note causes the air to vibrate so many times per second, the number varying with the pitch of the note he sings, the higher the note, the greater being the number of vibrations.

If we then by any means can get these vibrations to break a closed circuit in which the coil just mentioned is included, the note sung at one station can be reproduced at least so far as pitch is concerned at another. Reis' telephone invented accomplishes this in the following way:". The hole at the top is closed by a piece of bladder S, tightly stretched on a circular frame; a mouthpiece M is attached to the front opening.

A thin strip of platinum is glued to the membrane and connected with the binding screw a , in which a wire from the battery B is fixed. A tripod e f g rests on the skin. The feet e and f lie in metal cups on the circular frame over which the skin is stretched. One of these, f , rests in a cup containing mercury, and is connected with the binding screw b.

The third foot g , consisting of a platinum point, lies on the circular end of the strip of platinum just mentioned. This point, being placed on the center of the oscillating membrane, acts like a hopper, and hops up and down with it. It is easy to understand how, for every vibration of the membrane, the hopper will be thrown. The receiving apparatus R consists of a coil of wire placed in circuit, enclosing an iron wire, both being fixed on a sounding box.

The connections of the various parts of the circuit are easily learned from the figure. Suppose a person to sing a note at the mouthpiece which produces three hundred vibrations a second, the circuit is broken by the bladder three hundred times, and the iron wire ticking at this rate gives out a note of the same pitch. The note is weak, and in quality resembles the sound of a toy trumpet.

Wright uses a receiving apparatus of the following kind: the line current is made to pass through the primary coil of a small induction coil. In the secondary circuit he places two sheets of paper, silvered on one side, back to back, so as to act as a condenser. Each current that comes from the sending apparatus produces a current in the secondary circuit which charges and discharges the condenser, each discharge being accompanied by a sound like the sharp tap of a small hammer.

The musical notes are rendered by these electric discharges, and are loud enough to be heard in a large hall. All contended that the inventions were not novel, and set up prior inventions and discoveries by other persons and other patentees. Of the many persons named in the answers by whom the inventions covered by the first patent were averred to have been invented, known, or used prior to Bell's invention, in the arguments in this Court, the following were chiefly relied upon.

McDonough of Chicago, for which he applied for a patent in ; and 6 the machine constructed in New York in by Dr. Van der Weyde. The invention of Gray was set forth in a caveat filed in the Patent Office February 14, The following is a copy of that caveat, and of the office marks and proceedings therein:. Attached to this diaphragm is a light metal rod A' or other suitable conductor of electricity which extends into a vessel B made of glass or other insulating material, having its lower end closed by a plug, which may be of metal, or through which passes a conductor b , forming part of the circuit.

This vessel is filled with some liquid possessing high resistance, such, for instance, as water, so that the vibrations of the plunger or rod A', which does not quite touch the conductor b , will cause variations in resistance and consequently in the potential of the current passing through the rod A'. Any citizen of the United States who makes any new invention or discovery and desires further time to mature the same may, on payment of the fees required by law, file in the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the design thereof and of its distinguishing characteristics and praying protection of his right until he shall have matured his invention.

Such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from the filing thereof, and if application is made within the year by any other person for a patent with which such caveat would in any manner interfere, the Commissioner shall deposit the description, specification, drawings and model of such application in like manner in the confidential archives of the office and give notice thereof by mail to the person by whom the caveat was filed.

If such person desires to avail himself of his caveat, he shall file his description, specification, drawings, and model within three months from the time of placing the notice in the post office in Washington, with the usual time required for transmitting it to the caveator added thereto, which time shall be endorsed on the notice. An alien shall have the privilege herein granted if he has resided in the United States one year next preceding the filing of his caveat and has made oath of his intention to become a citizen.

Any citizen of the United States who makes any new invention or discovery and desires further time to mature the same may, on payment of the fees required by law, file in the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the design. Such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term of one year from the filing thereof, and if application is made within the year by any other person for a patent with which such caveat would in any manner interfere, the Commissioner shall deposit the description, specification, drawings and model of such application in like manner in the confidential archives of the office, and give notice thereof by mail to the person by whom the caveat was filed.

An alien shall have the privilege herein granted, if he has resided in the United States one year next preceding the filing of his caveat, and has made oath of his intention to become a citizen. One contention of all the respondents in regard to the Gray invention and caveat is stated in the answers of the Overland People's and Molecular cases in the following language:. The Overland Company and the People's Company further contended that certain evidence cited by their counsel, and which is contained or referred to in the report of the argument of their counsel infra justified the inference that the Gray caveat was filed in the Department of the Interior prior to the filing of Bell's application, specification, and claims of ; that information of this caveat was surreptitiously furnished to Bell's solicitors; that Bell's specifications and claims as originally filed varied from his specifications and claims as stated in the patent in several important respects; that these changes were made within four days.

The following copy of these specifications, known as the Bell George Brown specification, is from the record in the People's case, and is referred to in argument in this connection, and other evidence in this respect on which counsel on one side or the other relied is also referred to in the arguments. The origin and nature of this specification is fully set forth in the argument of counsel hereafter. This armature in vibrating makes and breaks the main circuit, producing an intermittent current upon the line wire.

I have found, however, that upon this plan, the limit to the number of signals that can be sent simultaneously over the same circuit is very speedily reached, for when a number of Transmitting Instruments having different rates of vibration are simultaneously making and breaking the same circuit, the effect upon the main line is practically equivalent to one continuous current. The advantages [claimed for the undulatory current over the] [bu]I claim to derive from the use of an undulatory current in place of a[eu] merely intermittent one, are,".

That a very much larger number of signals can be transmitted simultaneously over the same circuit. That communication in both directions is established without the necessity of using special induction coils. When, therefore, a permanent magnet is caused to vibrate in front of the pole of an electromagnet,.

That the difference between an undulatory and an intermittent current may be more clearly understood, I shall describe the condition of the electrical current when [bu]the attempt is made to transmit[eu] two musical notes [of different pitch are] simultaneously [transmitted along the Same wire] [bu]first upon the one plan and then upon the other. Then their rates of vibration are in the ratio of I, the rate is as ; in Fig. II, as ; and in Fig. III, the makes and breaks are of equal duration. Hence, the sinusoidal curve A or B [ Footnote 4 ] Fig. IV represents graphically the electrical undulations induced in a circuit by the vibration of a body capable of inductive action.

IV are in the ratio aforesaid, of -- that is, four oscillations of A are made in the same time as five oscillations of B. IV , which is the algebraical sum of the sinusoidal curves A and B. The armature c can be set in vibration in a variety of ways, one of which is by wind, and in vibrating it yields a musical note of a certain definite pitch.

The vibratory current passing through the coils of the distant electromagnet f causes vibration in its armature h when the armatures c h of the two instruments A I are normally in unison with one another; but the armature h is unaffected by the passage of the undulatory current when the pitches of the two instruments A I are different [from one another]. When the armature of any one of the instruments is set in vibration, all the other instruments on the circuit which are in unison with it respond, but those which have normally a different rate of vibration remain silent.

Thus, if A Fig. VI is set in vibration, the armatures of A1 and A2 will vibrate also, but all the others on the circuit remain still. So also, if B1 is caused to emit its musical note, the instruments B B2 respond. They continue sounding so long as the mechanical vibration of B1 is continued, but become silent the moment its motion stops. The duration of the sound may be made to signify the dot or dash of the Morse alphabet, and thus a telegraphic dispatch can be transmitted by alternately interrupting and renewing the sound. Thus, the signals of A are repeated by A1 and A2, but by no other instruments upon the circuit; the signals of B2 by B and Bl, and the signals of C1 by C and C2, whether A, B2, and C1 are successively or simultaneously set in vibration.

Thus, when c vibrates with little amplitude, a very soft musical note proceeds from h , and when c vibrates forcibly, the amplitude of vibration of h is considerably increased, and the sound becomes louder. So if A and B Fig. VI may be set in vibration has been stated above to be by wind. Another mode is shown [by] [bu]in[eu] Fig. VII, [which] [bu]whereby[eu] motion can be imparted to the armature by means of the human voice or by the tones of a musical instrument. When a loud sound is uttered in the cone, the membrane a is set in vibration, the armature c is forced to partake of the motion, and thus electrical undulations are caused upon the circuit E b e f g.

These undulations are similar in form to the air vibrations caused by the sound The undulatory current passing through the electromagnet f influences [the] [bu]its[eu] armature h to copy the motion[s] of the armature c.

Book Statistics

A system of telegraphy in which the receiver is set in vibration by the employment of vibratory or undulatory currents of electricity. The method of creating an undulatory current of electricity by the vibration of a permanent magnet or other body capable of inductive action. The method of inducing undulations in a continuous voltaic current by the vibration or motion of bodies capable of inductive action.

The method of and apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically by inducing in a continuous voltaic circuit [bu]causing electrical[eu] undulations similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying said vocal or other sounds the whole for operation substantially as [bu]herein[eu] shown and described. I include in the category of bodies capable of inductive action brass, copper and other metals, as well as iron and steel.

A system of telegraphy in which the receiver is set in vibration by the employment of undulatory currents of electricity. The combination of a permanent magnet or other body capable of inductive action with a closed circuit, so that the vibration of the one shall produce electrical undulations in the other or in itself. The method of producing undulations in a continuous voltaic current by the vibration or motion of bodies capable of inductive action, or by the vibration or motion of the conducting wire itself in the neighborhood of such bodies.

The method of and apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically, as herein described, by causing electrical undulations similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompany ing the said vocal or other sounds. Bell in the winter of , shortly before I left for England. I can fix the exact date by reference to my books and papers, but have not these at hand now. They were as follows, omitting illustrations. This invention may in its present state have no direct practical application, but be a mere scientific, although highly interesting, curiosity; but who can say that it does not contain the germ of a new method of working the telegraph, or some other useful practical purpose?

It is founded on the fact that the difference in pitch of different tones is caused by different velocities of vibrations of the elastic sounding body, which vibrations are transmitted to and by the air with exactly the same velocity, and from the air may be communicated to a properly stretched membrane, like a piece of bladder or very thin sheet of india rubber stretched like a drumhead, which these also will vibrate with exactly the same velocity as the air and the original sounding body, be it the human voice, organ pipe, string or any musical instrument.

If, now at the center of this little drumhead there be attached a small disk of some metal not easily burned by electric currents -- for instance, platinum -- while at the same time a platinum point may by means of a screw be so adjusted as to come very nearly in contact with this small platinum disk, it is clear that when the membrane is put in vibration, a succession of contacts between the disk and point will be produced of which the number in each second will exactly correspond with the number of vibrations in each second of the sounding body or the tone produced by it.

That part of the apparatus which serves to send off the tune or melody is represented in the illustration. It consists simply of a square wooden box provided at the side with a kind of mouthpiece similar to that of a speaking tube, and at the top with an opening over which the membrane just mentioned has been stretched.

The small piece of platinum attached to the center of this little drumhead is, by means of a very flexible strip of some metal that conducts well, attached to one pole of the galvanic battery, of which only one cup is represented in the figure,. The reason why this connection near the platinum disk is a flat, thin, and flexible strip is that any rigidity would interfere with the freedom of vibration of the membrane to which it is attached. The point coming in contact with this small vibrating disk is connected with the ground wire, the other pole of the battery with the air wire or submarine cable.

It is clear from this explanation that at every contact of the platinum point, a wave of electricity will be sent over the wire, and as many waves in a second as there are contacts, and as there are as many contacts as there are vibrations in every second, the number of electric waves will be always exactly equal to the number of vibrations corresponding with the pitch of each tone, be it fifty, one hundred, two hundred, or five hundred in every second.

It is represented in the cut, and consists of an elongated wooden box, of which the top is made of thin pine wood, similar to the sounding board of a stringed musical instrument, to which are attached two bridges carrying long pieces of moderately thick and very soft iron wire which for nearly their whole length are surrounded by a coil similar to the coil of the electromagnets used in telegraphing. One end of this coil is attached to the telegraph wire, the other to the ground wire, as represented in the figure.

At every instant that a contact is established at the station where the sound is produced, and a current wave thus transmitted, these wires will become magnetic, and consequently elongated, and they will be shortened again at every interruption of the current.

And as these currents and interruptions succeed each other with the same velocity as the sound vibrations, the elongations and shortenings of the magnetized iron wires will succeed each. Much less can articulate words be sent, notwithstanding the enthusiastic prediction of some persons who, when they first beheld this apparatus in operation, exclaimed that now we would talk directly through the wire. It is from its nature able to transmit only pitch and rhythm -- consequently melody and nothing more. No harmony nor different degrees of strength or other qualities of tone can be transmitted.

The receiving instrument in fact sings the melodies transmitted, as it were, with its own voice, resembling the humming of an insect, regardless of the quality of the tone which produces the original tune at the other end of the wire. The original sounds were produced at the farther extremity of the large building the Cooper Institute totally out of hearing of the Association, and the receiving instrument, standing on the table of the lecture room, produced with its own rather nasal twang the different tunes sung at the other end of the line -- rather weakly, it is true, because of the weak battery used, but very distinctly and correctly.

Gray's application of the telephone to the simultaneous transmission of several different telegraphic messages over one wire at the same time, and his paper read before the American Electrical Society published on p. As mentioned in the article above referred to, Page and Henry observed that by rapid magnetization and demagnetization, iron could be put into vibrations isochronic with the interruptions of the current, and later Marian experimented extensively in this direction, while Wertheim made a thorough investigation of the subject, which induced Reuss, of Friedrichsdorf, near Hamburg, Germany, to apply this principle to the transmission of musical tones and melodies by telegraph, and he contrived an apparatus which we represent in the engravings.

I represents the former, and is placed at the locality where the music is produced; Fig. II, the latter, is placed at the station where the music is to be heard, which may be at a distance of one hundred, two hundred, or more miles -- in fact, as far as the battery used can carry the current, while the two instruments are connected with the battery and the telegraph ware in the usual manner. One pole of the battery is connected with the ground plate, the other with the screw, marked 2 of Fig.

I, and thence over a thin copper strip n , with a platinum disk o , attached to the center of the membrane stretched in the large top opening of the hollow and empty box, K, intended to receive and strengthen the vibrations of the air, produced by singing before the fennel-shaped short tube attached to the opening in. Over the platinum disk c , attached to the elastic membrane, is a platinum point attached to the arms b c and b K, while a set screw brings this point in slight contact with the platinum disk mentioned.

A part of the box is represented as broken and removed in order to show the internal construction. The strip a b c is connected with the end s of the switch t s , and the screw connection 1 at the lower right-hand corner, and also through the telegraph wire, to the instrument Fig. II at the receiving station, which may be situated at a distance of many miles.

Here the current enters by the screw connection 3, and passes through the spiral g , surrounding the soft iron wire d d , of the thickness of a knitting needle, and leaves the apparatus at the screw connection 4, whence it obtains access to the ground plate and so passes through the earth back to the battery.

The spiral and iron wire d d is supported on a hollow box B, of thin board, while a cover D, of the same material is placed on top, all intended to strengthen the sound produced by the vibrations which the interruption of the current caused in the iron wire d d so as to make these vibrations more audible by giving a large vibratory surface, in the same way that the sounding board of a pianoforte strengthens the vibrations of the air caused by the strings, and makes a very weak sound quite powerful.

At every downward motion, the contact of this disk with the platinum point under b is broken, and therefore the current is interrupted as rapidly as the vibrations occur. Let, for instance, the note C be sounded; this note makes sixty-four full vibrations in a second, and we have therefore sixty-four interruptions of the electric current, which interruption will at once be transmitted through the telegraph lines to the receiving instrument and put the bar d d into exactly similar vibrations, making the very same tone C audible, and so on for all other rates of vibration.

It is clear that in this way not only the rhythm of music can be transmitted and this can. The switch t s , Fig. L, is intended, in connection with a similar one in Fig. II, to communicate between the stations, with the help of the electromagnet E, to ascertain if station, Fig. II, is ready to receive the melodies; then it gives the signal, by manipulating the switch, which is received by the attraction of the armature A, the latter arrangement being a simple Morse apparatus attached to the telephone. The original sounds were produced at the further extremity of the large building the Cooper Institute , totally out of hearing of the Association, and the receiving instrument, standing on the table in the lecture room, produced with a peculiar and rather nasal twang the different tunes sung into the box K at the other end of the line -- not powerfully, it is true, but very distinctly and correctly.

In the succeeding summer, I improved the form of the box K so as to produce a more powerful vibration of the membrane by means of reflections effected by curving the sides; I also improved the receiving instrument by introducing several iron wires in the coil, so as to produce a stronger vibration. I submitted these, with some other improvements, to the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and on that occasion now seven years ago expressed the opinion that the instrument contained the germ of a new method of working the electric telegraph, and would undoubtedly lead to further improvements in this branch of science, needing only that a competent person give.

If the aerial vibrations are only conducted into the box, Fig. The two parts of the apparatus may even be connected each to a separate pianoforte, and if this were done in a proper manner, a melody played on the pianoforte connected with the transmitting instrument, Fig. The following are the drawings and an extract from the specification in McDonough's application for a patent.

My invention also consists in the novel construction of the circuit breaker, as is hereinafter more fully described.


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C C are metal plates attached to the upper surface of the membrane A at its center, and are insulated from each other. D is a metal bolt permanently attached at its lower end to said membrane A, centrally between the plates C C, and is insulated from them. D' is the circuit breaker, which consists of an arched-shaped piece of metal loosely secured at its center upon the bolt D, and is bent upward at each end, and from the membrane A, as shown in Fig. The circuit breaker D' is so fitted upon the bolt D as to admit of a free and easy ascending and descending movement, the limit of its ascending movement being determined by its contact with the nut E on the bolt, and the descending movement being limited by its contact with the plates C C.

F is the receiving or sounding membrane, which is also composed of vellum or any suitable material that is sensitive to the vibration of sound,. H is the armature plate permanently attached to the membrane F, between it and the magnet, as shown in Fig. To each of the poles of the magnet is connected a wire M, one of which is connected with the battery K and the other with the ground wire, as shown in Fig.

It will be observed that each end of the circuit breaker D' is bent upward from the membrane, the object being to prevent local attraction. The articulate sounds may be taken direct from the magnet, or through any substance or material sufficiently sensitive to the vibrations of sound to reproduce them by contact with the magnet.

The combination with the battery, circuit wires, magnet, armature and circuit breaker, of the transmitting membrane A, and receiving membrane F, substantially as and for the purpose specified. The combination with the plates C C, of the circuit breaker D', whereby the circuit is alternately opened and closed by the vibrations of the membrane A, substantially as specified.

The combination of the bolt D and adjusting nut E, of the circuit breaker D', substantially as and for the purpose specified. There were two Varley patents. The United States patent, dated June 2, , set forth the object of the invention thus:. In so arranging telegraphic apparatus as to work by the variation of the increment and decrement of electric potential, and not by the direct action of the electric current itself, as and for the purposes set forth.

The use of an induction coil at the receiving end of the cable, one of its wires being connected between the cable and the ground and the other or secondary wire connected with the receiving instrument, as and for the purposes set forth. The use of a condenser or condensers between the receiving end of the cable and the earth, with or without resistance coils between the cable and the earth, as and for the purposes set forth.

The use of a condenser at the sending end of the cable, with or without resistance coils connecting its two armatures, as and for the purposes set forth. The use of a condenser at each end of the cable, the cable being connected with the ground through a resistance coil and a battery, so as to keep the cable always negatively electrified, as and for the purposes set forth. Gintl and Frischen's double speaking apparatus of a hollow helix connected between the receiving instrument and the line wire, such helix having rods or pieces of iron inserted into it.

The People's Telephone Company claimed as assignees of Drawbaugh's inventions and of his rights, and in their answer made the following averments respecting them:. Further answering, this defendant says that the said Daniel Drawbaugh, after making, testing, using, and extensively exhibiting his invention to others and allowing them.

Further answering, this defendant says that it has, by purchase, and for a valuable consideration, acquired the right, title, and interest of said Daniel Drawbaugh in and to all his said inventions, discoveries, and improvements in electric speaking telephones, and has full right at law and in equity to make, sell, and use electric speaking telephones embodying the inventions, discoveries, and improvements of said Drawbaugh without interference from or molestation by said Bell or his assigns and without liability to these complainants therefor.

Further answering, this defendant says that it has, in good faith, and relying upon its legal rights aforesaid, caused applications to be made and filed in the Patent Office for letters patent upon the inventions of the said Daniel Drawbaugh,. This defendant, further answering, denies all and all manner of unlawful conspiracy and confederacy with other persons and parties, as charged in the complainants' bill of complaint, denies all knowledge of the alleged newspaper publications referred to in said bill, and calls for due proof of said alleged publications if the complainants shall be advised that they are of any materiality to this suit, which this defendant denies, and denies all the allegations of the complainants' bill as to the said Drawbaugh invention, and particularly the allegations that said Drawbaugh's invention was a mere experiment, was incomplete, imperfect, unfruitful, and that knowledge of it was withheld from the public except so far as disclosed by said alleged newspaper publications in said bill mentioned and set forth.

It was claimed by the People's Company that Drawbaugh's inventions and the inventions covered by Bell's patents were for substantially the same thing. The main issues in this respect argued by counsel were issues of fact -- whether Drawbaugh's instruments were made prior to Bell's discovery and were practically operative, and whether the Drawbaugh witnesses to these points were to be believed. The record contains a great mass of testimony on these issues. Much of this is referred to in detail by the counsel on each side and by the court.

It is not practicable to report it further than they have regarded it as material and presented it in quotations and references. There was before the court in the Drawbaugh case a book containing a series of plates with references and notes written upon them , marked respectively from "A" to "Q," both inclusive. It was claimed on his behalf that these plates represented his invention at various stages of its development. The claim was made in the following language by his counsel:. The following are such of these plates, to which the counsel assigned a date prior to Bell's patent of March 7, , as are deemed to be necessary for a proper understanding of the arguments of counsel and of the opinion of the Court upon this point.

They are arranged in the order of the dates in which Drawbaugh was said to have constructed the instrument which they represent. These defendants have never been concerned in the manufacture or sale of telephones embracing the inventions or either of them, or any substantial or material parts of either of them, described in either of the patents mentioned in the bill of complaint, but they admit the manufacture and use of telephones invented by the defendant Dolbear and described in his letters patent No. The transmitter used in the Dolbear telephone is in all material respects identical with the Reiss-Wright transmitter.

It is a Reiss transmitter in a circuit of small resistance, having a helix as a part of it, with the transmitting core in that helix; the line is an open circuit, and is the first open circuit ever used for any practical purpose, and it was wholly unknown until Dolbear's discovery that such a line was capable of any practical use. The receiver is wholly new, wholly unlike any prior instrument, and operates upon a principle never before applied in any of the useful arts.

The method invented by Dolbear, and the only method practiced when his apparatus is used, is precisely the same as the Reiss-Wright method so far as concerns the use of the energy of the sound waves to vary the electric current in a circuit of small resistance, and the use of the current so varied to vary the magnetic energy of the transmitter core; but is wholly new with Dolbear in all other respects, for the magnetic variations of the transmitter core must be converted into electric variations of many times greater electromotive force than any ever before utilized for any practical purpose, and must be generated in a line whose resistance is practically infinite, and must be transformed directly into sound waves.

Dolbear's method is his own discovery and invention, is radically different from all other methods of transmitting sounds, except as to its first step, which is the same as that of the Reiss-Wright method, and is of the highest value and importance, inasmuch as it remedies. DOLBEAR, of Somerville, in the County of Middlesex and State of Massachusetts, have invented a new Apparatus for Transmitting Sound by Electricity, of which the following is a full, clear, concise, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, making a part hereof, in which --".