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A black musician is illustrated among the six trumpeters in the royal retinue of Henry VIII in the Westminster Tournament Roll, an illuminated manuscript dating from He wears the royal livery and rides on horseback. Both he and John Blanke were paid wages for their services. As trade routes were established between London and West Africa, people from this area began arriving in Britain on board merchant ships and would become a more familiar sight.
For example, in , the merchant, John Lok, brought several men to London from Guinea. The colde and moyst aire doth somewhat offend them. During the later sixteenth century and the first two decades of the seventeenth century, twenty-five people named in the records of the small parish of St. This was a time of war with Spain and there was an increase in the number of people reaching England from Spanish colonial expeditions in parts of Africa, not necessarily from Morocco.
The English freed many of these captives from enslavement on Spanish ships and brought them to London. Abyssinia had had a Christian community since before the religion ever came to Europe and we know there was a significant African presence in medieval Rome in the fifteenth century. From , embassies from Abyssinia were arriving across Europe. By the s, the church of Santo Stefano degli Abissini in Rome was specifically set aside for Ethiopian Christians to use. One seventeenth-century writer dates this use to as early as the s! This established a dedicated place of worship for visiting Ethiopians and the growing Ethiopian community in Europe.
He would have stood out from the crowd but, even at that date, his presence may have caused a few raised eyebrows but no more than that. For Rook, though, a difficulty does arise when a scapegoat is required, in which case, any stranger to London is in danger…. One lucky person will win seven mugs, one for each of the Seb Foxley medieval murder mystery books. You can enter below by answering the question and filling in your details.
All emails and details will be kept private. When an old friend returns with fabulous items for sale, it can only mean one thing: trouble. As thievery, revenge and murder stalk the fayre, Sebastian Foxley — artist and sometime-sleuth — has mysteries to solve. In uncovering the answers, he becomes enmeshed in a web of lies and falsehoods. His greatest dilemma means having to choose between upholding honour and justice or saving those dearest to him.
How can a truly honest citizen of London practise deceit and yet live with his conscience? The seventh Sebastian Foxley medieval murder mystery from bestselling author Toni Mount takes us deep into a dark world once again. Toni is a history teacher, a writer, and an experienced public speaker — and describes herself as an enthusiastic life-long-learner; she is a member of the Richard III Society Research Committee and a library volunteer, where she leads the creative writing group.
Toni attended Gravesend Grammar School and originally studied chemistry at college. She worked as a scientist in the pharmaceutical industry before stopping work to have her family. Having enjoyed history as a child, she joined an adult history class and ultimately started teaching classes herself.
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She earned her Masters degree from the University of Kent in by the study of a medieval medical manuscript at the Wellcome Library. A Year in The life of Medieval England , a diary of everyday incidents through an entire year, was published in Having taught history to adults MadeGlobal recruited her to create a range of online history courses for medievalcourses. Toni is married with two grown-up children and lives with her husband in Kent, England.
When she is not writing, teaching or speaking to history groups — or volunteering — she reads endlessly, with several books on the go at any one time. Her websites include: www. You can follow Toni on social media at: www. Very interesting. I remember reading a couple of months ago that DNA analysis shows that black Africans served as crew on the Mary Rose. Here in the US free blacks fought on both sides in the Revolution. I wish to turn your comment on political correctness upside down. The politically correct problem is not that Africans were wrongly shown to be in London in Doctor Who but that to do so destroys the politically correct narrative that until a couple of hundred years ago all black people in England and the US were slaves.
We have that problem here in America and it does people of color a great disservice to assume they could only be slaves in earlier history. Thank you for a very informative article. By the way, I really enjoy your articles Tudor Life magazine. No real historians would make such an inaccurate observation as all historians are well aware that Black people, people from the East, even Jewish families even after the expulsion under Edward I traders from every part of Europe, Arabs, people from just about anywhere lived in every main European Cities in the Middle Ages and Tudor times.
This has been known for some time among historians, so anyone questioning it need to read some history. Kids in school may not know, but there is no excuse for anyone else. Everything is online now.
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A simple search brings up many sources. You can email almost any academic these days and most are willing to answer questions, if you are polite. There are documentaries every time you tune into most of the documentary channels and again it is easy to ask a question on the internet. There have been books on the subject since the s, covering years of history and more recently on Tudor England. I was more surprised when the character herself asked if she was o. Do people seriously think that ethnic minorities only arrived during Windrush?
Yes, those years saw a sharp rise as people were encouraged to come here to settle as we had economic problems which required more people in the population and the ex colonies wanted more rights to settle and work in Britain as the country which used to rule those countries. Washington, D. Why take just any Christian pilgrimage to the Holy Land? Plus, help Christians in the Holy Land at the same time! Their mission is not only to welcome pilgrims, but to serve the Christians who live in the Holy Land, Christians who are in need of support in order to survive there.
Read More. View the complete list of upcoming pilgrimages Upcoming Pilgrimages. Been on a pilgrimage with us? Tell us about it! Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical from the Greek euangelion, good news or gospel generally means a focus on the essentials of Christianity. The term can be used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or give heavy emphasis to specific conservative Protestant beliefs. In Germany, "Evangelical" is basically synonymous with "Lutheran. More specifically the term has come to be closely identified with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian doctrine that developed after World War II.
See Fundamental Christianity.
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It means to become a God, exactly like God the Father and Jesus Christ, and to produce and rule over one's offspring throughout eternity. Exit Counseling: Thought Reform Consulting A non-coercive technique in contrast to deprogramming designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false, harmful, or dangerous.
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The approach stresses true personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making. Family counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated. Extrasensory Perception ESP : Alleged knowledge of an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses.
This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state. Publishes The Faith Word magazine. False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet that is not true. Familiar Spirit: A spirit that can allegedly communicate with humans, often through possessing the body of a medium , channeler , or psychic.
Also, a special type of demon that can impersonate a deceased person during attempts to communicate with the dead see necromancy. Not related to the following entry. Best known for explicit sexual practices in recruiting converts and inner-group life, based on Berg's writings, the MO Letters. Not related to previous entry. Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape, violence, spells, magic and other occult themes.
Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide while under the influence of FRP. Farrakhan, Louis: Leader in the Nation of Islam. New Age , automatic writing , ascended beings. Fellowship of Isis: Paganism. Egyptian gods and goddess worship. Feminism: See Radical Feminism. Feng Shui: A religious "science" for the balancing of Yin and Yang in the environment, discovered or originated by farmers some 3, years ago and developed within Taoism.
Feng Shui teaches that there is an energy called Qi or, Chi flowing throughout the universe, and in this world through lines, sometimes called channels or meridians, to which one must be properly aligned for optimal health, fortune, and quality of life. The position and alignment of structures and objects in one's environment affects the flow of this energy and one's own ability to harmonize with nature. Practitioners therefore arrange household and office furniture, design rooms and even whole buildings, their grounds and gardens, etc.
They thus hope to improve the balance of nature around them, not only for their own benefit, but for the benefit everyone in the area. First Temple of the Craft of W. See also Unarius Education Foundation. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter. Flirty Fishing, Ffing : Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex to entice converts into The Family. Publishes the Update newsletter. Followers of Christ Church, Walter T. White, Oregon City, OR: Practices shunning , exhibits legalism , and holds to a strict faith-healing doctrine. Doctors and hospitals are not allowed.
State medical examiner claims as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications from otherwise common medical problems. Form Criticism: A method of literary criticism used by many scholars in the interpretation of the Bible. It identifies the literary forms of specific parts of the biblical writings, such as the different types of psalms thanksgiving, lament, etc. By noting common features in passages of the same form, various conclusions are drawn about how to interpret those passages.
In liberal Christianity , which pioneered this method, many of the forms are assumed to be legendary or mythical especially those involving the supernatural. Some evangelical scholars think form criticism can be useful if such liberal assumptions are avoided, while other evangelicals reject form criticism outright.
See also Redaction criticism. Fortunetelling: A form of divination in which a person attempts to predict the future using alleged paranormal powers. The Forum: New Age , personal transformation seminar; see est. See also Process Church of the Final Judgement. Publishes the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter. All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God.
Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter. Fox, Kate and Margarett: See Spiritualism. Fox, Matthew: Dominican Catholic priest silenced by the Vatican for teaching blatant New Age theology which he calls "creation-centered spirituality". Free Bible Students: A small Bible Students splinter group currently consisting of only four congregations and approximately 27 home groups. Freemasonry: A fraternal order revived in the early 18th century in England, loosely based on associations or guilds of stone cutters "operative" masons. Freemasonry "speculative" masons sought to give philosophical, moral, or spiritual meaning to the lodge, tools, and oaths of the stone cutters.
Most modern adherents maintain that the organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral values and good works. They believe, therefore, that Freemasonry is compatible with and supplements Christianity and other religions. Critics counter that Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of respected early leaders Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc.
Despite Freemasonry's promotion and funding of a number of worthwhile, philanthropic endeavors free Shriner children hospitals, nursing homes, etc. Fundamentalist Christianity: Generally a reference to conservative Christians who believe five "fundamentals" of Christianity : the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of Christ, the bodily resurrection of Christ, and the historicity of biblical miracles.
More specifically, the term is identified with the conservative reaction, especially in America, to liberal Christianity in the early 20th century. Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical with evangelical Christianity. Some fundamentalists, however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals or neo-evangelicals whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical.
More recently some have given a new, negative meaning to the term "fundamentalist" using it as a synonym for narrow-minded, bigoted, anti-intellectual or divisive Christians. Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter. Gaia: Originally the Greek goddess of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts, much as the human body is one living organism with various parts.
Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly. Pyramid powers. Turgeon once claimed to be the prophet Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree murder in following the shooting death of former member Daniel Jess. Earlier that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group's five-acre compound located 60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property. Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized Buddhism through creative visualization meditation techniques. Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings, often believed to be the spirits of the dead.
See Spiritualism , Demon , Necromancy , Occult. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often means to lose all national identity. Mankind must see itself as one world family, without the need for distinctions between religions. All religions become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea. Publishes the Sunspot magazine. Gnosticism: From the Greek word gnosis knowledge. Salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism , Gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good.
Forms of gnosticism affected early Christianity. One Gnostic heresy taught that because matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh. Goat's Head: An occult symbol consisting of an upside-down five-pointed star. See Baphomet. Goddess: New Age , occult , neo-paganism. A term used in various though related senses to affirm a feminine nature or aspect of the divine. Three beliefs are common: revering "Mother Nature," or the Earth, as divine see Gaia ; worshiping a female deity often linked to primitive pagan religions, as in Wicca ; and the search by some women for the "divine spark" of the "goddess within.
Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter. Golden Wheel, W. Good, Joseph: See Hatikva Ministries.
The first four books of the New Testament, which consist of accounts of Jesus' ministry, death, and resurrection Matthew, Mark, Luke and John , are also called the Gospels. Most false gospels teach a form of either salvation by works or universalism. Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written in by Alice Bailey see Arcane School and circulated by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate a new utopia on earth.
Publishes The Covenstead newsletter. Great White Brotherhood: New Age belief in a group of spirit beings or reincarnated teachers, also called Ascended Masters , existing on a non-physical higher plane. Stevens, Jr. Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding. Guided Imagery: Another term for Visualization.
Guideposts: Magazine founded by Norman Vincent Peale. Gurdjieff, George I. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical teacher of all times. However, in its modern American form it is a holiday based on pagan , occult , Celtic beliefs and Druid rituals. Believed to be a religious high or holy day by those involved in witchcraft see Wicca and Satanism. Celebrated on October 31st, children are encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door Trick-or-Treat.
Halpern, Steve: Prominent New Age music composer and lecturer. Harmonic Convergence: A New Age , social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological conjecture. Other significant dates were 31 December and a culmination in Hatha Yoga: See " Yoga.
Publishes The Pathfinder magazine. Hay, Louise: New Age , metaphysical counselor and author. Practices Kundalini Yoga , vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts to move toward enlightenment. Publishes the Harbin magazine. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine.
Applewhite a. Do and 38 other members committed suicide in March of , believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles a. Ti and other "older members" from "the next level above human" on a UFO supposedly hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet. Heaven's Magic: Another name for the followers of David Berg, founder of The Family Children of God ; produces multi-color children's posters and music.
Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or division arising from diversity of opinions and aims. The term is usually reserved to refer to false teachings considered so serious that belief in them excludes the followers from the true faith and salvation; in other words, a belief viewed as fatal to the gospel. Religious groups founded on the basis of heresy are known as cults. Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching heresy.
Publishes Windwatch newspaper. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly. Hinduism: The major world religion that originated from the ancient religions of India, which originally embraced polytheism. As a more unified world religion, Hinduism teaches pantheism ; the ancient gods especially the triad of Brahma , Vishnu , and Shiva are commonly interpreted as representations of the various aspects of the divine Brahman. Human beings progress to the ultimate realization of their oneness with Brahman often called Nirvana through reincarnation according to the law of karma.
Some of the concepts of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon in the New Age Movement. Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or died under unusual circumstances. Many left large sums of money to Hoffman. Some holistic health remedies and assumptions i. Much within this movement, however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New Age visualization , and eastern religious beliefs such as Chinese Taoism Yin and Yang. Most questionable are holistic practices that have no valid physiological explanation or scientific proof such as applied kinesiology , reflexology and iridology.
Blighton: Monastic New Age group that practiced esoteric , mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult. Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without a license, began the order in After advancing through the order, men reached the status of Brown Brother of the Holy Light, while women might become an Immaculate Sister of Mary for Missionary Training.
After the death of Blighton, the group underwent radical changes. The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy. Several competing groups later formed claiming to preserve Blighton's original purpose and message. Publishes Purarnave periodical. Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical holistic health techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural elements are said to cure diseases. Publishes the Homeword newspaper. Horoscope: See Astrology.
Publishes Shiloh's Messenger of Wisdom. House of Divine Bread, J. House of Yahweh, Yisrayl a. Sabbatarianism , Sacred Name , British Israelism , only true church. Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson and author of many books on education in the American school system. Hubbard, L. Ron: Late founder of the Church of Scientology.
Hunger Project: Claims to help poverty-stricken people using visualization to rid the world of hunger. See est. Hypnosis: Technique inducing an altered state of consciousness or trance by verbal or non-verbal stimuli. Participants experience reduced ability for critical thinking and are generally open to external suggestion. See Mesmerism. I Ching: Yi King or The Book of Changes Ancient Chinese method of divination , predicting the future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined diagrams Trigams representing, among other things, Yin and Yang.
Identity Movement: See Christian Identity movement. Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity ; teaches salvation by works , salvation found only in this group. Originally promoted free thought and democratic political theories. Now believed by many to be an anti-democratic, elitist, conspiracy for one-world-government. Imagery: Alternative term for Visualization.
Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter. Inner Space Center: See Prosperos. Inner Technologies, Richard Daab, Fairfax, CA: New Age , yoga , astral projection , meditation , reaching Samadhi state of enlightenment , channeling , crystals , visualization. Insight magazine, Washington, D. Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Taught the world would end in Publishes the Lunar Letter. See Dual Covenant.
Founded in with 55, members worldwide. Current president Willis Harman. Former members and critics allege mind control. Practices shepherding , teaches baptismal regeneration , and claims to be the only true church. Publishes Upside Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses throughout America and internationally. Publishes Insight. International Society of Divine Love, H. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, A. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine. Investigative Judgment: One of the unique doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that make the place of that church within evangelical Christianity questionable.
First taught in Adventism by Hiram Edson, F. Hahn, and O. Crosier, it was accepted as "present truth" by those who would later become known as Seventh-day Adventists SDAs after it was confirmed and taught in visions received by Ellen G.
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The doctrine teaches that in the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly Sanctuary Christ is now conducting an investigation into the lives of all who have ever professed belief in Christ. He is judging all their works, by the standard of God's Law. All those whose lives fail to measure up to the standard of the Law are rejected and condemned as not having true faith.
Those whose lives meet that standard and thus manifest the perfect character and righteousness of Christ are recognized as having true faith, and so their sins are "blotted out. It declares that those who have remained loyal to God shall receive the kingdom. Profile on SDA available. Iridology: Developed by Ignatz Peczeky, a Holistic Health technique which supposedly allows one to diagnose unrelated diseases such as a sprained ankle or weak back by reading the color patterns of the eye's irises.
Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional or mental problems. Isis Unveiled: See Rosicrucianism. Islam is the second largest world religion, and has recently become the third largest religious body in America with over 6 million adherents. The mystical tradition of Sufism includes many Sunnis and some Shi'ites. The Arabic word Islam means "submission to the will of God" and a person who submits is called a Muslim.
However, only the Qur'an is considered uncorrupted. Islam rejects the Trinity doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered to be the greatest prophet, whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ.
Islam adheres fiercely to monotheism. In addition to good works, salvation is sought though observance of the Five Pillars: reciting "there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger," praying five times per day, fasting, giving alms donations to the poor , and a pilgrimage to Mecca.
While many Muslims exhibit tolerance towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes jihad holy war , against those of other religious and political views. Jehovah's Witnesses: Official name of the religion that accepts the authority of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Jesus: The founder and central figure of Christianity. The name "Jesus" corresponds with the Hebrew "Joshua" and means "Jehovah is salvation. Even ancient, non-Christian sources corroborate some historical facts about His life and ministry.
By far, the oldest and fullest historical information is found in the New Testament Gospels. Attempts have been made by liberal Christianity , New Agers , cults , and other religions to present Jesus as a "great teacher" whose ministry or life was radically different from the biblical historical accounts. While these efforts often define a "Jesus" compatible with their world views, they lack early supporting historical documentation and are thus arbitrary and subjective. The sources support the historic, traditional Christian belief that Jesus is the second Person of the Trinity , that he was and is fully God and fully man, that he was born of a virgin, died on the cross as a substitutionary atonement for our sins, and rose bodily from the dead.
Jesus Only: Nickname for Oneness Pentecostalism. See Modalism. Jihad: Literally, "struggle," more popularly, "holy war"; a term used to refer to the Muslim commitment to impose the teachings and law of Islam throughout the world, by force where that is considered necessary or appropriate. Publishes an annual catalog.
It is said that he makes "love slaves" of women. Judaism: World religion that traces its origins to God's call to Abram Abraham to be the father of a great people who would inherit the land of Canaan and be the means of blessing to all mankind Genesis That people is identified as the children of Abraham's grandson Jacob, who was renamed Israel. The foundation of Judaism is the Torah Genesis through Deuteronomy , which tells of the Israelites' bondage in Egypt, their miraculous deliverance in the Exodus, and the giving of the Law through Moses.
The Israelites returned to the promised land of Canaan and became a small but powerful nation there under the rule of King David and his son Solomon. After Solomon's death the kingdom split into a northern kingdom called Israel and a southern kingdom called Judah the name of David's tribe. The northern kingdom was conquered and decimated by the Assyrians in BC, after which the term Judeans, or Jews, gradually came into use to refer to all Israelites.
Throughout this period the Jews developed a strong sense of national identity, identification with the Promised Land, and anticipation of a coming Messiah or Christ "Anointed One". These themes dominate the rest of the Jewish Bible, which is identical with the Protestant canon of the Old Testament. In the first century AD, Christianity originated with the belief that Jesus was that promised Messiah. The Jewish establishment at that time, however, rejected Jesus' claim to be the Messiah, and in fulfillment of his prophecy Mark 13 the Jerusalem temple was destroyed and the Jewish nation scattered AD What is now known as the religion of Judaism originated after AD 70 as the rabbis, or teachers of the Torah, developed a system of laws and interpretations of the Torah that were eventually codified in the Talmud.
Today Judaism can be identified as a cultural, ethnic, or religious concept. There are three main branches of modern Judaism: Orthodox traditional, literal adherence to the Torah as interpreted by the Talmud , Conservative a middle position advocating traditional beliefs and practices up to a point , and Reform liberal, non-literal stance on the Torah and Talmud; often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish culture.
Kabbalah: Various spellings Mystical Jewish teachings intermingled with teachings of gnosticism , Neoplatonism, magic and the occult. The word Kabbalah means secret oral tradition and was coined by an eleventh century Spanish philosopher, Ibn Gabirol. The philosophy developed in Babylon during the middle ages from earlier Hebrew speculation and numerology. An early Kabbalist, Moses de Leon, developed and systematized the philosophy in his thirteenth century work, The Book of Zolar sometimes spelled Zohar meaning "Splendor".
Kairos Foundation: See Life Training. Karma: The Hindu principle of cause and effect. Representing neither good nor evil, all actions and events are balanced with corresponding actions and events in the past or future including past and future lives through reincarnation. Karma Yoga: See Karma , Yoga. Katherine, Brooklyn, NY: Astrology , psychic development. Keen, Sam: Prominent New Age teacher and author. Publishes Utopian Eyes magazine. Klassen, Frank, Ft. Knight, J. Koresh, David: See Branch Davidians. Kosmon: See Universal Faithists of Kosmon. Krastman, Hank: See Metaphysical Union.
Krieger, Dolores: See Therapeutic Touch. Publishes Yoga Quest magazine. Devotion to Krishna has been introduced in the West especially through the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Krishnamurti, a Hindu who sought to unify Eastern religion with Western philosophy and science, was proclaimed as the world's messiah by Theosophy leader Annie Besant in He later renounced that role to be the head of the newly created Order of the Star.
Teaches alternative mystical experiences. Also, the form of yoga that seeks to focus that force. Kunz, Dora: See Therapeutic Touch. Laksmi: or Lakshma The name of one of Krishna 's consorts. Myers, FL: Bible Students group. Lao-tzu: See Taoism. Membership estimates range between and 1, members. The group is believed to own or control more than 24 companies and have holdings in Nevada, Idaho, and possibly Arizona and Mexico.
Lazaris: Spirit supposedly channeled by Jach Pursel. Or, a system of religious rules must be kept to please God or religious leaders, sometimes resulting in a kind of spiritual abuse. Liberal Christianity: A movement that seeks to retain religious and spiritual values of Christianity while discounting the infallible authority of the Bible. Its origins are in the German Enlightenment, notably in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and the religious views of Friedrich Schleiermacher. Liberals reject the stated authorship and historical accuracy of many books of the Bible.
They are skeptical concerning many or all of the biblical miracles, preferring naturalistic explanations or viewing miracle accounts as legend or myth. They often deny or reinterpret in mythical terms such doctrines of orthodox Christianity as the virgin birth, atoning death, and even the resurrection of Jesus. Liberalism has been most influential in mainline Protestant denominations and is rejected in Evangelical and Fundamentalist Christianity. Liberation Theology: A movement that attempts to unite theology with social and religious concerns about oppression.
It finds expressions among blacks, feminists, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans, but it is most closely identified with the shift toward Marxism among Roman Catholic theologians and priests in Latin America. Most traditional doctrines of Christianity are de-emphasized or reinterpreted. Jesus and the Bible are defined and interpreted in light of a class struggle, with the gospel seen as a radical call to activism or even revolution promoting political and social answers usually in the form of classic Communism.
Life Training, Dallas, TX: New Age seminars that seek to awaken people to a new level of awareness and belief systems; Eastern spiritual philosophy. Lifespring: New Age seminars promoting human transformation and altering belief systems. Similar to est. Lifton, Robert: Dr. Lifton studied Mao Tse-Tung's programs of "Thought Reform" or Chinese brainwashing while doing research for military intelligence. His study focused on radical change in personality and belief systems of certain prisoners-of-war who were held and tortured in Chinese camps.
This research was later expanded in his work, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism, in which he theorized that subtle elements of these brainwashing techniques could also be found in other environments. While some elements of these criteria could be found in virtually any group, Lifton warned that an environment of mind control or thought reform exists when all eight are found implemented in the extreme.
Publishes the Let There Be Light magazine. Publishes The Lotus quarterly. Publishes The White Light newsletter. Publishes Yoga In America magazine. Publishes the Light Speed magazine. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper. Lion and Lamb Ministries, Monte W.
Holds that Jesus is the biblical Messiah. Legalistic tendencies, Sabbatarianism , practices Jewish holy days. Judah falsely predicted that the Abomination of Desolation prophesied in the Bible would occur by March of promising he would be "totally discredited" and would "shut down" the ministry if wrong. On March 23, he apologized for the false prophecy but reneged on his vow to disband the movement. Literary Criticism: The discipline that seeks to discover the underlying literary sources, stylistic features, type or genre of literature, authorship, unity, and date of a text, for their value in interpreting the text's meaning in its original historical context.
The application of literary criticism to the Bible can be constructive, although in liberal Christianity the method is typically applied on the basis of antisupernatural and humanistic assumptions. See further Form Criticism. All other worthy Jehovah's Witnesses the "other sheep" cf. John will live for eternity on a new paradise earth. Published Shekinah newsletter. Now defunct. See Branch Davidians. Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. Paul, MN: See "Spell. The current president is Carl Weschcke who in acquired the magazine Fate, which now has , subscribers. Their popular catalog, New Worlds, is sold in newsstands nationwide and has a circulation of nearly , Limiting or controlling the thought processes by regulating the language in such a way that communication constricts and limits rather than expands human understanding.
Growth and controversy developed during the administration of their second leader, the late Witness Lee, who moved to America in founding Living Stream Ministry. Among issues drawing criticism from evangelical Christians is the Local Church's use of the term "mingling" to describe the relationship between God and believers i.
Some evangelicals have also charged that the church compromises the Trinity doctrine by confusing the Persons of the Holy Spirit and the Son in a way similar to modalism. The organization's exclusivity has also comme under fire. According to Lee, each city can and should have only one church. Denominationalism is seen as of the Devil. According to critics, the effect is that Lee-led local churches, usually called by the name of their cities e. Thus, according to former members, all other churches or denominations are seen as being outside the will of God or not true churches at all.
The Local Church has also gained a reputation for threatening legal action to prevent unfavorable public evaluation of its movement. The Lodge: See Freemasonry. Lotus: New Age periodical. Lucifer: Another name for Satan. Lucis Trust: See Arcane School. Publishes the Gnosis journal. Publishes Birth Into Light newsletter. M Mackey, Albert: See Freemasonry. MacLaine, Shirley: Former film actress turned New Age author; seminars, channeling , pantheism , reincarnation , chakras.
Mafu: Spirit supposedly channeled by Penny Torres. Magi Center, Inc. Magic: Magick Occult ceremonial use of amulets and talismans. May involve necromancy or divination , invocation of infernal deities or use of natural elements to gain supernatural power or knowledge. The word magic is also used to describe a type of stage performance involving legerdemain slight of hand or illusion with no alleged psychic or occult power.
This type of stage magic is not inherently evil, although occultists have occasionally used stage magic in an attempt to claim supernatural abilities. Mahavira: See Jainism. Malcolm X: See Nation of Islam. Mantra: Eastern mysticism or New Age term for a word or series of words that are repeated over and over either verbally or silently.
The Mantra is said to help one achieve an altered state of consciousness. Often practiced during meditation or relaxation exercises.