Frauen (German Edition)

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Learn the most common German abbreviations with this list. Review them and compare them to their English counterparts. Note which abbreviations don't appear in English. Share Flipboard Email. Hyde Flippo taught the German language for 28 years at high school and college levels and published several books on the German language and culture. Abbildung illustration Abf. Abfahrt departure Abk. Absender sender, return address Abt. Abteilung department abzgl.

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Anhang appendix Ank. Ankunft arrival Anl. Anlage encl. Altes Testament Old Testament Aufl. Band volume book beil. Bestellnummer order number Betr. Betreff Re:, regarding Bez. Continue Reading. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our.

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German Academic Exchange Service. DAG ver. Deutsche Bahn. German Federation of Unions. Deutsches Jugendherbergswerk. Deutsche Presse-Agentur.

The author of Kranckheiten seems to have taken most if not all his references to the Persian authority Avicenna from Savonarola, but all references to the German authority Albertus Magnus are new. For example, the German author includes towards the end of the chapter instructions for repairing an ano-vaginal fistula. Although incorporated into the Compendium medicine Compendium of medicine by Gilbertus Anglicus in the mid-thirteenth century and, in somewhat more abbreviated form, into Francesco da Piedemonte's medical textbook, Trota's instruction ultimately had little impact on learned discussions of this condition.

Even Savonarola's treatment of the condition was perfunctory at best. The instruction to sew the tear between the vagina and the anus with four or five stitches with a silk thread comes directly from Trota, but then the German author describes another procedure I have seen nowhere else in a medieval text. He instructs that pieces of linen cloth should be plastered on the two sides of the tear. This may suggest that these novel elements come not out of some other textual source but out of the writer's own surgical practice.

The Hamburg manuscript, the sole extant copy of the Kranckheiten , is unlikely to have been the original copy of the text; as Kruse noted, it is the work of a professional scribe and bears several errors of inattention unlikely to have been allowed to stand had the composing author been supervising. Bartholomeus Metlinger, the physician whose paediatric text was absorbed into the Hamburg manuscript and afterwards into the Rosegarten , took his medical doctorate at the University of Bologna in He composed a brief text perhaps for his own wife for strengthening the womb, with instructions in German keyed to Latin recipes that followed.

He also copied with his own hand a series of Latin chapters apparently drawn from an as yet unidentified Latin compendium on gynaecological conditions. Known to have translated both a regimen from Guglielmo da Saliceto's Latin Summa conversationis et curationis and Pietro d'Argellata's Chirurgia , he also claims to have translated a work entitled Wie sich die kindendenn frawenn in dem geberen der kind halten sollent How Pregnant Women Should Comport Themselves in Bearing Their Children.

As its title suggests, it matches the topic of the Savonarola translation perfectly. Nor, aside from some quite novel traditions in pelvic floor surgery and perhaps some individual pharmaceutical therapies, does it reflect a particularly German tradition of women's healthcare.

His imprint on the text was really that of a salesman, someone who recognized the possibilities of print, both as a mechanism to cheaply reproduce the Muscian images and as a way to curry favour among women who might offer some kind of patronage. Surely the most important finding of this analysis, however, is to show how intimately linked the manuscript culture of the late Middle Ages was with the print culture of the Renaissance.

Savonarola's concern that he would not get due credit for his obstetrical writing was justified, since his name is found nowhere in the German Kranckheiten or the Rosegarten , and it has been lost to the historical record until now. Yet in fact, the obstetrical practices of Italy that he described proved the basis not only for German obstetrics, but for developing traditions all over western and central Europe as the Rosegarten was repeatedly translated and republished over the next century and a half.

This work was begun during a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in and completed during one at the Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University, in My thanks to both institutions for their generous support. His data can now be supplemented for extant copies of the German editions in German libraries by Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des There is no need to repeat all that information here, other than to provide some updated information on the various translations.

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First, regarding the Danish translation which was first described by Ingerslev, op. Regarding the Czech edition, neither Ingerslev nor Klein provided a precise citation; the reference department at the National Library of the Czech Republic informs me 12 Nov. As for the Spanish translation, Klein claims this was published in Zaragossa in even though he admitted that the one exemplar he had to hand was missing its title-page and date.

C viii recto. Regarding the much studied publishing history of the English translation first published in , with a revised version in , see now Thomas Raynalde, et al. Elaine Hobby, Aldershot, Ashgate, Although some medieval texts were addressed to women generically, Michele Savonarola c. Burckhard suggested that they came from the late fifteenth century, before the Rosegarten was published.

Jahrhundert , 2nd ed. Two adaptations of the Rosegarten incorporated the local midwifery ordinances drafted by their physician authors; see Adam Lonitzer —, city physician of Frankfurt-am-Main ed. Pernille Arenfeldt History, American University of Sharjah has discovered that the Electress Anna of Saxony — had in her personal possession a copy of Lonitzer's book and may have used it and other books on midwifery in the electoral library in her systematic efforts to improve Saxon midwifery personal communication, 12 July His obstetrical chapters can be found in Franciscus de Pedemontium, Supplementum in secundum librum secretorum remediorum Ioannis Mesuae, quae vocant De appropriatis , in Supplementum in secundum librum Compendii secretorum medicinae Ioannis Mesues medici celeberrimi tum Petria Apponi Patavini, tum Francisci de Pedemontium medicorum illustrium , Venice, Iunta, , f.

Savonarola's debt to Francesco da Piedemonte was first noted by Ingerslev, op. Fi recto to Fij verso. All translations here are my own, as is the punctuation of the German. Sibylle Plassmann, in Gynaecia Mustionis , op. The introductory material to both these translations should be used with caution. Because the hardcover and paperback versions of this edition have different pagination, I cite the text by paragraph numbers.

Theodorus's text was a very spare summary with little obstetric content, while Caelius's, though apparently originally a full and faithful translation, survived into the High Middle Ages in only one fragmentary copy. Guy sees the surgeon as giving instruction to the midwife. N o 98 current whereabouts unknown , c.

England , with sixteen figures, here found with Albucasis and other surgical writings, including the surgical books of Celsus's De medicina ; and Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, MS lat. Z , s. These two texts are now extant in twelve and eight copies, respectively. See Hanson and Green, op. The images are not found in this copy, but their intended presence was clearly signalled in the text. In the catalogue, it bore the title Geneziam Mustionis cum contentis. Wiesbaden, O Harrassowitz, , p.

While there is still a copy of an abbreviated form of Muscio in a Bamberg library Staatsbibliothek, cod. This large composite manuscript comprising not only Muscio but also the Trotula was owned by a fifteenth-century German doctor of medicine and theology named Johannes Spenlin. In both these texts, he annotated only passages dealing with obstetrics and neonatal childcare.

This is the only medical manuscript that Spenlin is known to have owned; see Green, op. Germany , ff. In addition, the Nuremberg physician Hartmann Schedel — may have been responsible for bringing a thirteenth-century Italian copy of the images, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm see note 14 above , back from his studies at Padua in — The physician Hermann Heyms fl. At least two late-fifteenth-century copies of the famous Florentine codex containing Celsus, Muscio, and other late antique works now Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Plut.

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The manuscript was owned by Master Hildebrandus Brandenburg, who then donated it to the Carthusian house of Buxheim. As was typical of the period, Hartlieb only recognizes Muscio's utility as a resource on obstetrics; the work's gynaecological content is never mentioned. There is, however, one branch of the tradition that adapts the sequence to incorporate the image of a foetus with a large head image 10A in Table 1. See Green and Mooney, op. C ii verso. Diiii verso. XXI, rubr. My thanks to Prof. Marafioti for permission to cite this. Savonarola repeats the phrase in the Regimen , in Belloni ed.

In Clm 13, Hermann Schedel's younger cousin, Hartmann — who also studied in Padua, wrote out notes for distinguishing between a mola vera and pregnancy. Between them, the two also owned four copies of the Salernitan Trotula texts on women's medicine.

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Although the first edition seems to have had a limited circulation I have found no extant copies in German libraries , the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich has the and editions, as do many other libraries in Germany. Ciiii recto. Di verso. Owsei Temkin trans. Z , f. Hildesheim, Georg Olms, , f. Dii verso. It does not appear in either the or the printed editions I consulted, but cf. Rauws and Rauws, op. Cum autem est in actu sic parturiendi, obstetrix iubeat pregnantem sedere per spatium hore, uel circa. Deinde faciat ipsam ambulare saltando modo super uno pede, modo super alio, est iuvativum valde, et quod aut fortiter clamet, aut ut potest anhelitum teneat ad hoc, ut inferius comprimat.

Item faciat ilia sua fricare, et premere ad expellendum foetum. Cumque sentit mulier foetum descendere, et os matricis aperiri ex fortificatis doloribus, et quia humiditates incipiunt in maiori quantitate emanare; tunc precipiat obstetrix ut pregnans stet super sedem altam in extremitate eius super puluinare. Retro autem ponatur pulvinar, et mulier alia cui adhereat: aut, si potest, stet suis pedibus, et se suspendat collo unius fortis mulieris, que etiam sustineat.

Autem stet super genua sua in lecto ab aliis substentata mulieribus, et quedam mulieres, ut grece habent sedem hoc modo factam, ut hic. Nam super primam extremitatem semirotundam stat parturiens, retro eam stat, que ipsam substinet, et tenet cum pulvinari, et retro ipsam est aliter una, que ut iam est eleuata, ad quam se apodiat mulier, eam substinens et gubernans; et est modus bonus, quamuis non ubique fiat. Sed certe, ut ab eis habui, non valet aliquis modus singularum, quoniam oportet mutare secundum dolores, et causas impedientes exitum foetus.

This also appeared in Latin as De conceptu et generatione hominis: De matrice et eius partibus, nec non de conditione infantis in utero, et gravidarum cura et officio: … libri sex … , trans. XXI, rubric 34, De regimine multi sanguinis post partum , f. Giii recto. Biii verso, Ci recto, and Ci verso. Giiii verso—Hi recto. Although the Trotula was available in two different German translations including one by Johannes Hartlieb , neither one included this section of Trota's Treatments for women.

Green ed. The second section is a regimen for the woman during her lying-in after birth; while there are many headings on post-partum conditions in Savonarola's Practica including a chapter specifically on the regimen for the enixa , it offers no direct parallel.

Like Savonarola's own Italian text for women, it is long on advice for behaviour and diet, and short on anything more technical or theoretically demanding. Kruse, op. In the corresponding passage of the Latin, Savonarola says nothing about baked apples. Kruse suggests the manuscript was in Eucharius the elder's hands throughout his life, then passed immediately to his son, Eucharius the younger. It then passed to another apothecary named Johan Wessen. I have compared the incipit of this text the beginning of the chapter on uterine suffocation with a variety of Latin compendia and have not yet been able to identify its source.

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Figure 1. Cii verso, new image of two-headed baby born in Werdenberg ein kindt mit zweyen heuptern geboren [no correspondence] Image 4: Chap. Ei verso Item ob das kind ein hand erzeugte Image 5: Si ambas manus eius foras invenerit two hands leading Image Chap. Eii recto Item ob das kind sich mitt dem hindern erzeugte Image Si duplicatus fuerit. Muscio, Gynaecia , Bk II, chap. We command that the midwife should never take hold of it and try to pull it out, lest the rest of the infant's body is stuck inside.

Rather, having first fixed her fingers on the groin of the infant, let her reduce it back upwards. And after, putting in her hand, let her correct the other foot. And if possible, let her join its hand to its sides. And grabbing hold of the feet, let her attempt to draw it out. But when the child comes at first with one foot alone, one should have the woman lie on her back with her legs over her, her head below her, and her hind parts quite elevated.

And then the midwife should gently put back the child's foot. And the mother should push herself around and roll around many times until the child has turned his head around toward the exit. Then, the mother should once again sit on her stool and the midwife should assist her again, as [described] above. Figure 2. The Obstetrical Chair 44 The second birth regimen in both Savonarola and Kranckheiten , that to be followed during labour itself, shows the same relationship.

Figure 3. Causes of Difficult Labour As noted, the original German author of Kranckheiten was not an unthinking compiler. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.


Image 1: hic est secundum naturam primus et melior ab omnibus partus normal presentation, head down, arms at side, legs straight. Image 1: Chap. Image 2: et hic secundum naturam est, sed secundus partus head up, both feet straight down, arms down by sides. Image 2: Chap. Image 3: Chap. Cii verso, new image of two-headed baby born in Werdenberg ein kindt mit zweyen heuptern geboren.

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Image 4: Chap. Image 5: Chap. Image 3: Si in divexum 2 iacet transverse lie, usually with arms extended straight out to side, i. Image 8: Chap. Image 4: Quotiens manum mittit one hand leading, extended through mouth of uterus; head down, legs together, other arm at side. Image Chap. Ei verso Item ob das kind ein hand erzeugte. Image 5: Si ambas manus eius foras invenerit two hands leading. Eii verso Ob aber das kind mit beyden henden erschyne.

Image 6: [S]i brevissimum caput habeat et ambas manus foras eiecerit small head, with two hands alongside. Image 8: Et si unum pedem foris eiecerit one foot presenting, other bent; arms extended to sides. Image 7: Chap.